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## Metastable states of warm dense hydrogen

Warm dense hydrogen is investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in the region of fluid–fluid phase

transition. The method of getting adjacent metastable states is developed. The metastable states are successfully obtained in the region of densities from 0.920 to 0.970 g/cm3 and pressures from 1850 kbar to 2150 kbar along an example of 1000K isotherm. The states have similar pair correlation function as equilibrium ones before the transition. The existence of metastable states provides possible physical reasons of the remarkable differences between phase transition parameters obtained by three experimental groups.

Non-equilibrium two-temperature warm dense metals consist of the ion subsystem that is subjected to structural transitions and involved in the mass transfer, and the electron subsystem that in various pulsed experiments absorbs energy and then evolves together with ions to equilibrium. Definition of pressure in such non-equilibrium systems causes certain controversy. In this work we make an attempt to clarify this definition that is vital for proper description of the whole relaxation process. Using the density functional theory we analyze on examples of Al and Au electronic pressure components in warm dense metals. Appealing to the Fermi gas model we elucidate a way to find a number of free delocalized electrons in warm dense metals.

Within electron density functional theory (DFT), the reflectance of radiation from shock-compressed xenon plasma is calculated. The dependence of the reflectance on the frequency of the incident radiation and on the plasma density is considered. The Fresnel formula is used. The expression for the longitudinal dielectric tensor in the long-wavelength limit is used to calculate the imaginary part of the dielectric function (DF). The real part of the DF is determined by the Kramers-Kronig transformation. The results are compared with experimental data. An approach is proposed to estimate the plasma frequency in shock-compressed xenon. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Warm dense matter is a peculiar state with solid densities and temperatures 1 − 100 eV. Its *ab initio* description waits united efforts of quantum chemistry, condensed matter and plasma physics. We use the finite temperature Kohn–Sham density functional theory (a ‘workhorse’ in this field) to study the pressure build-up with increase of electronic temperature in crystal and amorphous warm dense matter (WDM) gold. We compare the *ab initio* results with the effective ion–ion interaction model and reveal the possibility to separate the free electron contribution to the total pressure in WDM and to determine the corresponding degree of ionisation. For the sake of clarity, we try to describe our findings using the proper framework of statistical physics and briefly review the free energy models for WDM.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.