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## Local Goldblatt-Thomason Theorem

The celebrated theorem proved by Goldblatt and Thomason in 1974 gives necessary and sufficient conditions for an elementary class of Kripke frames to be modally definable. Here we obtain a local analogue of this result, which deals with modal definability of classes of pointed frames. Furthermore, we generalize it to the case of n-frames, which are frames with n distinguished worlds. For talking about n-frames, we generalize modal formulas to modal expressions. While a modal formula is evaluated at a single world of a model, a modal expression with n individual variables is evaluated at an n-tuple of worlds, just as a first-order formula with n free variables. We introduce operations on n-frames that preserve validity of modal expressions, and show that closure under these operations is a necessary and sufficient condition for an elementary class of n-frames to be modally definable. We also discuss the relationship between modal expressions and hybrid logic and leave open questions.

The paper draws attention to the epistemological obstacles that prevented Wittgenstein from acknowledging the modern view of modal logic, including the so-called propositional attitudes. Whilst suggesting a retrospective overview of the logic of epistemic modalities, it is argued that such obstacles primarily rely upon the nature of the logical space depicted in the *Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus* as well as the metaphysical status of the subject. Some relevant quotes are recalled to justify the essentially universal feature of logic according to the early Wittgenstein.

Recently some elaborations were made concerning the game theoretic semantic of Lℵ0 and its extension. In the paper this kind of semantics is developed for Dishkant’s quantum modal logic LQ which is also, in fact, the speciﬁc extension of Lℵ0 . As a starting point some game theoretic interpretation for the S L system (extending both Lukasiewicz logic Lℵ0 and modal logic S5) was exploited which has been proposed in 2006 by C.Ferm˝uller and R.Kosik . They, in turn, based on ideas already introduced by Robin Giles in the 1970th to obtain a characterization of Lℵ0 in terms of a Lorenzen style dialogue game combined with bets on the results of binary experiments that may show dispersion.

*Advances in Modal Logic* is a bi-annual international conference and book series in Modal Logic. The aim of the conference series is to report on important new developments in pure and applied modal logic, and to do so at varying locations throughout the world. The book series is based on the conferences. Please consult thebackground pages for further details.

In this paper we introduce public announcements to Subset Space Logic (SSL). In order to do this we have to change the original semantics for SSL a little and consider a weaker version of SSL without the cross axiom. We present an axiomatization, prove completeness and show that this logic is PSPACE-complete. Finally, we add the arbitrary announcement modality which expresses ``true after any announcement'', prove several semantic results, and show completeness for a Hilbert-style axiomatization of this logic.

We consider modal logics of products of neighborhood frames and prove that for any pair L and L' of logics from set {S4, D4, D, T} modal logic of products of L-neighborhood frames and L'-neighborhood frames is the fusion of L and L'.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.