Optical single-photon detection in micrometer-scale NbN bridges
We demonstrate experimentally that single photon detection can be achieved in micron-wide NbN bridges, with widths ranging from 0.53\,μm to 5.15\,μm and for photon-wavelengths from 408\,nm to 1550\,nm. The microbridges are biased with a dc current close to the experimental critical current, which is estimated to be about 50\the theoretically expected depairing current. These results offer an alternative to the standard superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs), based on nanometer scale nanowires implemented in a long meandering structure. The results are consistent with improved theoretical modeling based on the theory of non-equilibrium superconductivity including the vortex-assisted mechanism of initial dissipation.
We researched the relation between deposition and ultra-thin VN films parameters. To conduct the experimental study we varied substrate temperature, Ar and N2 partial pressures and deposition rate. The study allowed us to obtain the films with close to the bulk values transition temperatures and implement such samples in order to fabricate superconducting single-photon detectors
We investigate thermal properties of a NbN single-photon detector capable of unit internal detec- tion efficiency. Using an independent calibration of the coupling losses we determine the absolute optical power absorbed by the NbN film and, via a resistive superconductor thermometry, the ther- mal resistance Z(T) of the NbN film in dependence of temperature. In principle, this approach permits a simultaneous measurement of the electron-phonon and phonon-escape contributions to the energy relaxation, which in our case is ambiguous for their similar temperature dependencies. We analyze the Z(T) within the two-temperature model and impose an upper bound on the ratio of electron and phonon heat capacities in NbN, which is surprisingly close to a recent theoretical lower bound for the same quantity in similar devices.
We demonstrate niobium nitride based superconducting single-photon detectors sensitive in the spectral range 452–2300 nm. The system performance was tested in a real-life experiment with correlated photons generated by means of spontaneous parametric downconversion, where one photon was in the visible range and the other was in the infrared range. We measured a signal to noise ratio as high as 4×1044×104 in our detection setting. A photon detection efficiency as high as 64% at 1550 nm and 15% at 2300 nm was observed.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.