Literary legend in the early 19th century Russian literature: genre labeling and genre formation
In the late 18th century the word “legenda” entered the Russian language, and several decades later it started to be used by Russian writers as a generic label. The present paper analyses short prosaic texts written in the 1820-1830 with this label in their titles or subtitles. The aim of the research is to ascertain whether such texts followed a similar generic pattern. As the literary legend was a fully developed genre in the late 19th century Russian literature, the research will presumably enable us to trace the formation of the genre. I argue that the chosen texts share a network of constituent properties, which indicates their generic cognateness and allows the reader to attribute them as literary legends. Roughly, the Russian literary legend of the 1820-s1840-s may be characterized as a historical narrative relating some extraordinary, often criminal events. Though the audience is likely to disbelieve the story, the narrator finds it necessary to communicate it, as it contains an important truth or idea missing from conventional sources. Despite the similarity of the generic pattern, the genre had fuzzy boundaries in the first half of the 19th century, which is revealed in numerous title alterations, inconsistency in using cognate labels (skazanie, predanie, byl’), absence of legend cycles, and insufficient speculations on the genre. However, it can be concluded that the literary legend of the time was a grain from which the late 19th century genre developed.
The paper analyses Mamin-Sibiriak’s Legends (1898) cycle, which appeared at the time when legends in Russia were on the peak of popularity. The cycle is a masterful stylization of Asian folk tales belonging to some of the minorities of the Russian Empire, and it fuses together Oriental and Occidental literary and geopoetic traditions. The background of the cycle creation and an analysis of the Asian and European roots of the legends reveal the ways in which the two cultures are combined by the author. Mamin-Sibiryak uses Oriental stylization, typical of the folk-lore of minor ethnic groups of the Trans-Urals, on the language and imagery levels. His artful employment of linguistic and poetic devices such as foreign words, alien names and realias, zoomorphic metaphors and similes, as well as concepts and sets of values not typical of European mentality, misled his contemporaries into thinking that he had published some collected folk material. However, the writer created his own plots, following patterns and motifs mostly characteristic of both Western and Eastern cultures. There are similarities between the plots and the motifs of the cycle and those of the European Romanticism, Buddhism, Indian epics, and Biblical scenes. Consequently, Mamin-Sibiryak’s choice of plots may be aimed at identifying some basic similarities between these traditions. A study of the cycle proves that the impact of A. Schopenhauer’s philosophy, which exploits ideas shared by Eastern and Western cultures, on the legends contributes to the interaction of Occidental and Oriental cultures within the cycle on the underlying levels, though the connotation of some Eastern motifs is contradictory to the Western tradition. While creating the legends, the author did not aim at just making the Russian reader acquainted with the folklore of minority groups. Rather, the chosen ‘alien’ form was intended to help the reader forget about everyday life and perceive some eternal truths concerning morals, history, a person’s predestination, and love. We argue that the writer intentionally combined Eastern and Western cultural and literary traditions to achieve a greater effect on his readers.
The collection offers articles dedicated to the Russian-Chinease literary relations, the image of China in the Western literary tradition and the vision of Russia in Chinese literature.
Anniversary collection of articles in honor of L.I.Sobolev includes works by his disciples and colleagues covering a broad range of the phililogical issues: the problems of Russian literature, European literature of the Middle Ages and of the 19 -20 centures, corpus linguistics, linguistic analysis of the literary texts, the questions of teaching of Russian literature at school.
The book consists of the three parts: scientific study, works on pedagogy and bibliografy of L. Sobolev prepared by A. Sobolev.
The book contains works of famous Russian critics and linguists, professors of leading Russian universities as well as articles by well-known teachers of Moscow schools, especially the gymnasium 1567.
Features of religion as way of the relation to the world and its influence on development of the Russian literature are considered. The spetsififichesky lines of religion defining features of outlook and strategy of social behavior of believers are marked out. The main vectors are specified in use of religious images and ideas within literary texts.
The purpose of the article is to analyze the existing ideas about Russian literature in Britain at the end of the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. A brief overview of the advancement of works of Russian classics among British readers is given. The spread of Russian literature in Britain was progressing slowly for a long time due to the difficulty in translation and the lack of interest in Russia and Russian culture. However, at the end of the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, the situation changed in the literary community of Britain. This period saw a plethora of publications of translations of Russian fiction that were accomplished by professional translators, Slavonic scholars, and writers and appeared in periodicals and other print formats. The article provides an overview of the translation of works of F.M. Dostoevsky, L.N. Tolstoy, A.P. Chekhov, who have become the most understandable and accessible to the English mentality thanks to such outstanding translators as C. Garnett, Aylmer and Louise Maude, S.S. Koteliansky (who worked in collaboration with V. Woolf, J.M. Murry), R.E.C. Long and others. Having gained access to high-quality translations of Russian classics, British writers began to study their work in more detail. The British saw the influence of English and European writers (W. Shakespeare, Ch. Dickens, J.-J. Rousseau, J.W. Goethe, V. Hugo, etc.), e.g. in the works of F.M. Dostoevsky. However, later the creation of Russian writers influenced the Western novel, modifying it. There is an opinion that the works of A. P. Chekhov, made by Garnett, changed the English short story, making it exactly as we know it. V. Woolf, J. Joyce, B. Shaw, J. Galsworthy, A. Bennett and others admired the depth, style, and language of Russian writers. Translation of works of great Russian authors facilitated the flow of information about Russia and expanded the British view of the country and people. This once again confirms the fact of mutual cultural exchange between the two countries from a historical perspective. It can be argued that, despite all the complexities of the relationship, the mutual influence of the literatures of the two countries is obvious.
This article analyzes the concept of «historicism in perception», which corresponds to the formation of literary education. The paper argues that the formation of historicism in perception is possible only under the condition of reflection and analysis of the value of its own position, its relationship with the modern age and culture. This involves understanding the cultural and historical distance that separates the modern man from the author of classic works, perception of historical meaning in their dynamics and variability. As a practical application of this thesis is proposed to go from the analysis of works of contemporary literature to the understanding of works of classical literature, close to them on the issue and possibly a general intertextual field.
The memoirs of Jewish amateur writer P. Vengerova and Russian writer/educator E. Vodovozova have many commonalities in their plot lines. Yet the approaches of the memoirists towards the description of their childhood were different. While Vengerova builds her memoirs on the myth of the Golden Age of Jewish authenticity lost in the course of assimilation, Vodovozova perceived her childhood against the foil of Russian serf-ownership. The strategies and methods of the writers derived from their approaches.
The paper presents an experiment aimed at comparison of results of topic modelling via non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) with that of manual topic annotation performed by an expert. The experiment was conducted on the annotated corpus of Russian short stories of the initial three decades of the 20th century, which contains 310 stories with a total of 1000000 tokens written by 300 Russian writers. The annotation scheme used in topic annotation includes 89 topics, further this list was reduced down to 30 generalized ones, the most frequent of which turned out to be the following: death, relationships, love, social groups, social processes, family, money, human sins, nature, religion, and war. Then, the corpus divided into three consecutive time periods was subjected to NMF topic modelling which provided a model including 24 topics. The results of both topic annotations were compared and described. The paper discusses the main findings of the study and the difficulties of fiction topic modelling which should be taken into account. For example, experimental results showed that topic modelling via NMF should be primarily recommended for the revealing of topics referring to general background of literary texts (e.g., war, love, nature, family) rather than for detecting topics related with some critical events or relations between characters (e.g., death or relations). The comparison of human and automatic topic annotation seems an important step for the improvement of artificial technologies techniques related with NLP.
"Semiotics of Scandal" is the third collection of the series "Mechanisms of culture". It presents the materials of an international conference held at the Center for Slavic studies (Sorbonne, Paris). The authors, using different methodologies, analyze different forms of scandal as one of the dominant categories of the literary process, history, and politics.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.