«Русская весна» 1917-го года в публицистике Николая Бердяева и Максима Горького
in this article the author shows that after revolutions of XX century
for the thinking person uncertainty in all moral values becomes fundamental.
In the situation of cultural crisis, revolts of mass consciousness we clear understand
collapse of all moral ideals. Person does not know what has spiritual value in
his life. He doubts in all ideals and principles. And this uncertainty becomes the
first step to the awareness of true foundation – spiritual reality, which is opposite
to earth reality. Russian philosophers have seen the solution in the ideas of Christian
The present edition continues the scientific series «Literature. XX century» (issue I – “Faces and Facets of the XXth Century”, 2009; issue 2 – “Literature and War. XX Century”, 2013; issue 3 – “Literature and Ideology. XX Centu‑ ry”,, 2016) based on the materials of the International prof. Leonid Andreev memorial conferences “Faces and Facets of the XXth Century” regularly hosted by the Faculty of Philology, Lomonosov State University of Moscow (MGU). As the edition coincides with the centenary of the Russian revolu‑ tion, the major part of the papers is focused on the influence of the event on the Western and Russian literature and culture (including the Russian Émigré literature), as well as on the Soviet-Western literary and cultural contacts of the 1920–1930s. The issue also considers the impact of various XXth centu‑ ry revolutions (political, social, aesthetic, technical, etc.) over European and American literature and culture.
Max Weber was one of the first social scientists to give a critical analysis of the socialist experiment in Russia from 1917 to 1920. The fundamental importance of this segment of Weber’s heritage today is that Weber makes his interpretation of the 1917 Russian Revolution not only from a practical-polemical standpoint, but also from a theoretical-sociological one. The main focuses in the article are Weber’s analysis of the Russian revolution from the point of view of the practical results of Bolshevik policies, and his comparison of the policies of the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution and Civil War of 1917–1920 with the doctrinal propositions of Marxist socialism. The article also deals with Weber’s thesis of the unavoidable bureaucratization of socialist society, and with his comparative analysis of the market and the planned economy. In conclusion, we formulate the idea of the heuristic potential which Weber’s analysis of the experience of the practical implementation of socialism in Russia might have for contemporary studies of the history of Soviet society.
The paper attempts to analyse the views of Boris Poplavsky (1903-1935), an émigré poet, writer and amateur philosopher, on the historical dialectics and the role of revolutionary violence and terror. The main emphasis is laid on his essay "Lichnost' i Obschchestvo" ("Personality and Society", 1934) as its line of argument seems to be based to a certain extent on the revolutionary (in every sense of the world) interpretation of Hegel's "Phänomenologie des Geistes" by the Russian émigré philosopher Alexandre Kojève. Poplavsky acknowledges the necessity of revolutionary violence, in particular in his novel "Domoi s nebes" ("Homeward from Heaven"), possibly because of his attendance and participation in Kojève's seminar on Hegel (1933-1939) held at the Ecole pratique des hautes études in Paris. Poplavsky officially attended the seminar in the 1934-1935 academic year, though the close analysis of his essay shows that he might have participated in Kojève's classes of the previous year as well, especially the ones dedicated to Hegel's dialectics of death.