Гамлет Шекспира и Амлет Саксона Грамматика как «двойники-близнецы»
The article briefly describes the evolution of views on the phenomenon of doubleness – since prehistoric times and until its reinterpretation by the Romantics – and examines a cultural-historical connection between the protagonist of Shakespearean tragedy “Hamlet” and his prototype found in “Gesta Danorum” by Saxo Grammaticus. Contrary to existing tradition, which recognizes doubleness only within a single work, the author argues that doubles may be characters from different works connected by their cultural kinship and similarity in their missions. The first part of the article compares the personalities of these two characters, and demonstrates the ambiguity of Amleth that is often overlooked by scholars. Having remade an ancient story of Amleth, Shakespeare transformed the personality of the main character, but did not change the basis of the plot, without which the narration would make no sense. In the second part of the research, the author analyzes the dualism of Amleth, who combines traits of a culture hero and a trickster. Amleth embodies this most ancient type of doubleness, of course, not in its original form, as he is not a cave man, but a man of civilization, however primitive it may be. In the third part of the article, Hamlet’s inner struggle is presented in the context of a contradiction between his conscious humanistic personality and a subconscious “shadow” which demands Prince of Denmark follow the norms of archaic heroism. In this connection, the personality of Amleth should be acknowledged not as a mere layer of Hamlet’s personality, but as its basis, its “cultural unconscious”. On the grounds of the “functional unity” of the characters, as well as their belonging to the “world of the heroic”, although the interpretations of latter being different, it is concluded that Hamlet and Amleth are “doubles-twins”.