Детское недоедание в странах Африки: статистический анализ и моделирование факторов
Sustainable development of society is one of the goals of the millennium, which is impossible without progress in the field of eradicating hunger. According to estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in 2015 about 792.5 million people suffered from chronic hunger. The vast majority of the hungry lived in developing countries, where 60% of child deaths were due to reduced body weight. The level of child malnutrition continues to grow in many African countries. The work explores the problems of child malnutrition in Africa, modeling its contributing factors according to data of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for the period 1991-2014 Panel cointegration models made it possible to obtain estimates of long-term relationships. This is particularly important in the analysis and monitoring of long-term investment programs in Africa. Initially, all countries were divided into three clusters, differing in socio-economic development. The most unfavorable situation was in the countries of the first cluster, with low per capita GDP and a prevalence of childhood anemia (as a measure of hidden hunger) at 68.9%. Further modeling of long-term trends was carried out for the first cluster countries. The analysis showed that a long-term relationship exists between the prevalence of anemia among children (as a measure of hidden hunger), access to improved sources of drinking water, the seriousness of the food deficit, the population and the cost of food imports in total exports of goods.
The paper studies the problems of food security as the basis for the stability of the country’s economic development. Despite the economic growth of most countries in the world, the problems of hunger continue to be acute in developing countries. This undermines the food security of these countries and can pose a threat to world peace as a whole. Numerous studies show that foreign investment plays an important role in the creation of food security, but this effect is ambiguous. The most common methods of analysis in recent researchеs are descriptive analysis and panel data models. In this article, our approach to analyzing the impact of foreign investment is based on panel cointegration models; the interpretation of the results uses the impulse response function based on an error correction model. Countries of North Africa are considered as an example of the implementation of this approach. Data from the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization for 1991–2014 for seven countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara) were selected for analysis. In this paper, we have also tested the methodology for selecting the food security indicator based on analysis of the matrix of cointegration relations. The results show that foreign investment has a significant long-term impact on food security, but in the short term no effect was detected. The proposed modeling methodology can be extended to any region of the world to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the current economic policy to combat hunger and poverty.
This paper investigates the problem of food security as the basis for the stability of economic development on the example of North Africa. According to the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization for the 1991-2014 the impact of various economic and financial factors, such as international trade, rural development, the state of the financial system, and others. on the potential for food security is examines based panel cointegration model. The proposed in the work methodology can be extended to any region of Africa to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of policies to fight hunger and poverty.
The chapter deals with relations between Russia and the countries of the African continent. The author analyses the Soviet legacy in this sphere, but pays the main attention to the contemporary situation. She looks into the reasons for Russia's interest in Africa, the spesific forms of cooperation between our country and Africa and of their economic and political relations. She alo assesses the prospects and possibilities of these relations.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.