Le drame comme réseau de relations. Une application de l’analyse automatisée pour l’histoire littéraire du théâtre
Of late, the network analysis of literary texts has grown into an independent research field of digital literary studies. Since analysing the network structure of unique texts promises just marginal results, the perspective should shift towards a ‘distant reading’ of hundreds or thousands of texts. In this paper, we describe how the process of formalising literary data is facilitated by machine-readable corpora comprising hundreds of dramatic texts in several languages. Taking a corpus of roughly 500 German-language dramas as an example, we demonstrate how the calculation of network metrics and visualisations can deliver new material for interpretation and offer new insights into the evolution of drama.
Das Projekt ‘Digitale Netzwerkanalyse dramatischer Texte’ steht in der Tradition strukturanalytischer Ans¨atze in der Literaturwissenschaft (allgemein Titzmann 1977), die es einerseits im Sinne eines konsequent netzwerkanalytischen Relationismus (mit Rekurs auf die Social Network Analysis, siehe u. a. Wasserman/Faust 1998), andererseits unterstutzt durch Verfahren der automatisierten ¨ Datenerhebung und -auswertung weiterentwickelt, um sie auf gr¨oßere Textkorpora anzuwenden und so umfassende relationale Daten uber Prozesse des literaturgeschichtlichen Strukturwandels ¨ gewinnen zu k¨onnen.
Exakte Datumsangaben sind ein Merkmal vieler Prosatextsorten. In der Literatur finden sich dagegen bevorzugt ungef¨ahre Datumsangaben, die Interpretationsr¨aume ¨offnen
This paper presents a project aiming to create a complete digital edition of Leo Tolstoy’s works with rich structural, semantic, and metadata markup. The project is twofold: its first stage was a massive crowdsourcing effort to digitize Tolstoy’s 90-volume comprehensive print edition. That effort, known as ‘All of Tolstoy in One Click’, received considerable media attention (Bury 2013, McGrane 2013) and attracted more than three thousand volunteers from all over the world. Now that the first goal of ‘primary’ digitization had been achieved, an obvious next step was to provide the digitized texts with TEIconformant markup. This work is in progress at the moment. In the paper we describe both stages of the project (the completed and the ongoing) with a special focus on their social and educational impact.
This paper presents a quantitative study of spoken dialogue in Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace. Tolstoy was known to put a lot of emphasis on the language in which fictional characters express themselves, and conscious modification of their speech is acknowledged by critics as part of his literary technique. Our goal was to try and find some formal markers that would help us distinguish the characters, measure some sort of speech-based similarity between them, and cluster them into meaningful groups. At the first stage we applied some well- established approaches of stylometry (computational stylistics) that were originally developed for real-world authorship attribution and rely mainly on word and n-gram frequencies. Then we tried our own alternative method based on more formal and structure-oriented features independent of actual word choice. Both approaches produced meaningful and interpretable results, which indicate overall applicability of quantitative methods to literary studies in general and to the analysis of specific characters in particular. At the same time, the difference between the two sets of results helped us demonstrate that sometimes more formal and structure-oriented features could be more revealing and ‘noise-resistant’ than word and n-gram frequencies.
In the last ten years or so since the publication of David Damrosch's groundbreaking book What Is World Literature? (2003), one has come to recognize the need to begin to locate the various facets of the currently prevalent Anglo-Saxon discourse of world literature with more conceptual rigour. The first imperative, it seems to me, is to pose the question: where is "world literature" ontologically?2 Some believe it to be an attestable network of texts that, aided especially by the process of globalization, enter into myriad relations—however complex and mediated, but still ultimately demonstrable—that reveal (or sometimes conceal) the hard facts of canon formation, cultural propaganda, ideological indoctrination, the book trade, etc. Others understand world literature above all as a prism through which to analyze literature, a "mode of reading." Sometimes these two beliefs coexist in the same body of work, making it prone to conceptual confusion. A third option, often coexisting with the other two, is to practice "world literature" as an intellectual discourse with clear ideological subtexts, frequently liberal and cosmopolitan. How we actually understand "world literature," as an attestable reality of texts or as a prism—one might even be tempted to add a "unit"—of comparison, in other words, a "mode of reading," is not a metaphysical issue. It has very real implications for the ways in which we approach questions such as how one should try to narrate the history of world literature. In addition to this fundamental differentiation, I also wish to suggest another, more concrete grid that should assist in this effort of locating world literature as a construct. This grid is essentially chronotopic and consists of several vectors. One needs to be aware of at least four major reference points: time, space, language, and, crucially, what one could term self-reflexivity—how literature itself reflects on, and creates images of, "world literature," thus opening up spaces for interrogation and dissent from the currently prevalent notions of world literature. In what follows, I will address these four points in sections of varying length.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
The Incongruity Theory of Humor in its different forms states that the cause of laughter is the perception of something that violates our mental patterns and expectations. It seems particularly true of comic absurdity which is based on a deadpan violation of established norms of logic and convention. The current paper explores linguistic mechanisms that underlie the comic effects in the works of Mikhail Zoshchenko, one of the great satirists of Soviet Russia. Zoshchenko is well-known for his simplified writing style which imitates the language and mentality of “the simple people” while at the same time mocking the nascent Soviet officialdom and its demands for the popular accessibility of art. The paper considers Zoshchenko’s narrative through the prism of conventional implicatures (Grice 1961, Karttunen and Peters 1979, Horn 2004, Potts 2005, 2007), or meanings that are not directly stated in the utterances, but implied by the speaker; e.g. Even John solved the problem implies that it was it was not expected of John to solve it. In successful communication, implicit meanings form the shared background of conversational partners; violation of these shared norms may be used to create comical effect. One of the most conventionalized societal norms and one Zoshchenko most frequently violates is the value of human life and, hence, solemn attitude to death. The narrator in Zoshchenko’s stories repeatedly implies otherwise, thus creating a comical portrait of the mentality of Homo Soveticus. Consider a quote from “The story about a greedy dairy woman”: “So, her husband died. At first she probably took it lightly. - A-a, she thought – no big deal… But then she realized – yes, this is a big deal!... Eligible bachelors are not running around in bunches. And then, of course, she started grieving” (shift in emphasis; the cause for grief is not the husband’s death but its inconvenience for the surviving wife). The story “A restless old man” (about an old man who lives in a communal flat and falls into lethargic stupor taken by his family and neighbors for death and then after waking up really dies) is based on violating the same conventional implicature. Throughout the story the narrator implicitly creates the image of death as an inconvenient occurrence and of a deceased person as an unwanted piece of waste. The harshly comic effect is achieved by implicatures about the shallow emotional impact of death (“And then of course there is aggravation: because the room is small and here is a superfluous element”, “If my husband, this surviving idiot, ordered the hearse right away, then the wait for it would have only been three days”; “The summoned doctor reassured everybody that now the old man is bona fide dead”); by violation of semantic compatibility rules whereby the seemingly dead old man is alternately referred to as an animate being (“The dead man is lying and demanding the last tribute to be paid to him”, “The babysitter is afraid to be in the room where a dead person is living”) or inanimate object (“There is so little space that there is even nowhere to pile up the old man”; “I am going to pile him up in the hall, let him wait for the hearse there”).
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.
The article examines the main trends in the study of the Stalinist period and the phenomenon of Stalinism in connection with the mass opening of the archives.