Le drame comme réseau de relations. Une application de l’analyse automatisée pour l’histoire littéraire du théâtre
Of late, the network analysis of literary texts has grown into an independent research field of digital literary studies. Since analysing the network structure of unique texts promises just marginal results, the perspective should shift towards a ‘distant reading’ of hundreds or thousands of texts. In this paper, we describe how the process of formalising literary data is facilitated by machine-readable corpora comprising hundreds of dramatic texts in several languages. Taking a corpus of roughly 500 German-language dramas as an example, we demonstrate how the calculation of network metrics and visualisations can deliver new material for interpretation and offer new insights into the evolution of drama.
Das Projekt ‘Digitale Netzwerkanalyse dramatischer Texte’ steht in der Tradition strukturanalytischer Ans¨atze in der Literaturwissenschaft (allgemein Titzmann 1977), die es einerseits im Sinne eines konsequent netzwerkanalytischen Relationismus (mit Rekurs auf die Social Network Analysis, siehe u. a. Wasserman/Faust 1998), andererseits unterstutzt durch Verfahren der automatisierten ¨ Datenerhebung und -auswertung weiterentwickelt, um sie auf gr¨oßere Textkorpora anzuwenden und so umfassende relationale Daten uber Prozesse des literaturgeschichtlichen Strukturwandels ¨ gewinnen zu k¨onnen.
Exakte Datumsangaben sind ein Merkmal vieler Prosatextsorten. In der Literatur finden sich dagegen bevorzugt ungef¨ahre Datumsangaben, die Interpretationsr¨aume ¨offnen
This paper presents a quantitative study of spoken dialogue in Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace. Tolstoy was known to put a lot of emphasis on the language in which fictional characters express themselves, and conscious modification of their speech is acknowledged by critics as part of his literary technique. Our goal was to try and find some formal markers that would help us distinguish the characters, measure some sort of speech-based similarity between them, and cluster them into meaningful groups. At the first stage we applied some well- established approaches of stylometry (computational stylistics) that were originally developed for real-world authorship attribution and rely mainly on word and n-gram frequencies. Then we tried our own alternative method based on more formal and structure-oriented features independent of actual word choice. Both approaches produced meaningful and interpretable results, which indicate overall applicability of quantitative methods to literary studies in general and to the analysis of specific characters in particular. At the same time, the difference between the two sets of results helped us demonstrate that sometimes more formal and structure-oriented features could be more revealing and ‘noise-resistant’ than word and n-gram frequencies.
In this paper we introduce RusDraCor — an open corpus of Russian drama for digital literary & linguistic research. The corpus (rus.dracor.org) contains plays from the middle of XVIII to the first third of XX century provided with structural (plus some semantic) markup and metadata. Texts are encoded in the XML-based standard TEI, widely used in building corpora for the humanities. We describe the contents and annotation layers of our corpus, provide some details on its development and enrichment, and finally describe three research cases. Each case demonstrates the use of RusDraCor to answer specific questions about composition, structural features and historical evolution of Russian drama.
In the last ten years or so since the publication of David Damrosch's groundbreaking book What Is World Literature? (2003), one has come to recognize the need to begin to locate the various facets of the currently prevalent Anglo-Saxon discourse of world literature with more conceptual rigour. The first imperative, it seems to me, is to pose the question: where is "world literature" ontologically?2 Some believe it to be an attestable network of texts that, aided especially by the process of globalization, enter into myriad relations—however complex and mediated, but still ultimately demonstrable—that reveal (or sometimes conceal) the hard facts of canon formation, cultural propaganda, ideological indoctrination, the book trade, etc. Others understand world literature above all as a prism through which to analyze literature, a "mode of reading." Sometimes these two beliefs coexist in the same body of work, making it prone to conceptual confusion. A third option, often coexisting with the other two, is to practice "world literature" as an intellectual discourse with clear ideological subtexts, frequently liberal and cosmopolitan. How we actually understand "world literature," as an attestable reality of texts or as a prism—one might even be tempted to add a "unit"—of comparison, in other words, a "mode of reading," is not a metaphysical issue. It has very real implications for the ways in which we approach questions such as how one should try to narrate the history of world literature. In addition to this fundamental differentiation, I also wish to suggest another, more concrete grid that should assist in this effort of locating world literature as a construct. This grid is essentially chronotopic and consists of several vectors. One needs to be aware of at least four major reference points: time, space, language, and, crucially, what one could term self-reflexivity—how literature itself reflects on, and creates images of, "world literature," thus opening up spaces for interrogation and dissent from the currently prevalent notions of world literature. In what follows, I will address these four points in sections of varying length.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.