Le drame comme réseau de relations. Une application de l’analyse automatisée pour l’histoire littéraire du théâtre
Of late, the network analysis of literary texts has grown into an independent research field of digital literary studies. Since analysing the network structure of unique texts promises just marginal results, the perspective should shift towards a ‘distant reading’ of hundreds or thousands of texts. In this paper, we describe how the process of formalising literary data is facilitated by machine-readable corpora comprising hundreds of dramatic texts in several languages. Taking a corpus of roughly 500 German-language dramas as an example, we demonstrate how the calculation of network metrics and visualisations can deliver new material for interpretation and offer new insights into the evolution of drama.
In this paper we apply network analysis to the study of literature. At the first stage of our investigation we automatically extract networks (graphs) of characters for each part of Leo Tolstoy’s novel War and peace using two different techniques for network creation. Then we evaluate these two techniques against a set of manually created gold standard networks. Finally, we use the method that demonstrated better performance in our evaluation to test a literary hypothesis about Tolstoy’s novel. The hypotheses we intended to prove was that the parts of the novel describing war (i.e. those where the battlefield or military units are the primary settings), have statistically lower density of interaction between characters, resulting in lower network density, higher network diameters and lesser average node degrees. By showing this correlation we mean to demonstrate the applicability of network analysis to computational research of fictional narrative (e.g. detection of tension changes in the plot).
Exakte Datumsangaben sind ein Merkmal vieler Prosatextsorten. In der Literatur finden sich dagegen bevorzugt ungef¨ahre Datumsangaben, die Interpretationsr¨aume ¨offnen
This paper presents a project aiming to create a complete digital edition of Leo Tolstoy’s works with rich structural, semantic, and metadata markup. The project is twofold: its first stage was a massive crowdsourcing effort to digitize Tolstoy’s 90-volume comprehensive print edition. That effort, known as ‘All of Tolstoy in One Click’, received considerable media attention (Bury 2013, McGrane 2013) and attracted more than three thousand volunteers from all over the world. Now that the first goal of ‘primary’ digitization had been achieved, an obvious next step was to provide the digitized texts with TEIconformant markup. This work is in progress at the moment. In the paper we describe both stages of the project (the completed and the ongoing) with a special focus on their social and educational impact.
This paper presents a quantitative study of spoken dialogue in Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace. Tolstoy was known to put a lot of emphasis on the language in which fictional characters express themselves, and conscious modification of their speech is acknowledged by critics as part of his literary technique. Our goal was to try and find some formal markers that would help us distinguish the characters, measure some sort of speech-based similarity between them, and cluster them into meaningful groups. At the first stage we applied some well- established approaches of stylometry (computational stylistics) that were originally developed for real-world authorship attribution and rely mainly on word and n-gram frequencies. Then we tried our own alternative method based on more formal and structure-oriented features independent of actual word choice. Both approaches produced meaningful and interpretable results, which indicate overall applicability of quantitative methods to literary studies in general and to the analysis of specific characters in particular. At the same time, the difference between the two sets of results helped us demonstrate that sometimes more formal and structure-oriented features could be more revealing and ‘noise-resistant’ than word and n-gram frequencies.
In the last ten years or so since the publication of David Damrosch's groundbreaking book What Is World Literature? (2003), one has come to recognize the need to begin to locate the various facets of the currently prevalent Anglo-Saxon discourse of world literature with more conceptual rigour. The first imperative, it seems to me, is to pose the question: where is "world literature" ontologically?2 Some believe it to be an attestable network of texts that, aided especially by the process of globalization, enter into myriad relations—however complex and mediated, but still ultimately demonstrable—that reveal (or sometimes conceal) the hard facts of canon formation, cultural propaganda, ideological indoctrination, the book trade, etc. Others understand world literature above all as a prism through which to analyze literature, a "mode of reading." Sometimes these two beliefs coexist in the same body of work, making it prone to conceptual confusion. A third option, often coexisting with the other two, is to practice "world literature" as an intellectual discourse with clear ideological subtexts, frequently liberal and cosmopolitan. How we actually understand "world literature," as an attestable reality of texts or as a prism—one might even be tempted to add a "unit"—of comparison, in other words, a "mode of reading," is not a metaphysical issue. It has very real implications for the ways in which we approach questions such as how one should try to narrate the history of world literature. In addition to this fundamental differentiation, I also wish to suggest another, more concrete grid that should assist in this effort of locating world literature as a construct. This grid is essentially chronotopic and consists of several vectors. One needs to be aware of at least four major reference points: time, space, language, and, crucially, what one could term self-reflexivity—how literature itself reflects on, and creates images of, "world literature," thus opening up spaces for interrogation and dissent from the currently prevalent notions of world literature. In what follows, I will address these four points in sections of varying length.
The article examines the main trends in the study of the Stalinist period and the phenomenon of Stalinism in connection with the mass opening of the archives.