Le drame comme réseau de relations. Une application de l’analyse automatisée pour l’histoire littéraire du théâtre
Of late, the network analysis of literary texts has grown into an independent research field of digital literary studies. Since analysing the network structure of unique texts promises just marginal results, the perspective should shift towards a ‘distant reading’ of hundreds or thousands of texts. In this paper, we describe how the process of formalising literary data is facilitated by machine-readable corpora comprising hundreds of dramatic texts in several languages. Taking a corpus of roughly 500 German-language dramas as an example, we demonstrate how the calculation of network metrics and visualisations can deliver new material for interpretation and offer new insights into the evolution of drama.
Using network approach, we propose a new method of identifying key food exporters based on the long-range (LRIC) and short-range interaction indices (SRIC). These indices allow to detect several groups of economies with direct as well as indirect influence on the routes of different levels in the food network.
Trading processes is a vital part of human life and any unstable situation results in the change of living conditions of individuals. We study the power of each country in terms of produce trade. Trade relations between countries are represented as a network, where vertices are territories and edges are export flows. As flows of products between participants are heterogeneous we consider various groups of substitute goods (cereals, fish, vegetables). We detect key participants affecting food retail with the use of classical centrality measures. We also perform clustering procedure in order to find communities in networks.
A “Network Analysis” section was arranged at the XVIIIth Interna- tional Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development at the Higher School of Economics on 11–12 April 2017. For the third year, this section invited scholars from sociology, political science, management, mathematics, and linguistics who use network analysis in their research projects. During the sessions, speakers discussed the development of mathematical models used in network analysis, studies of collaboration and communication networks, networks’ in- uence on individual attributes, identifcation of latent relationships and regularities, and application of network analysis for the study of concept networks.
The speakers in this section were E. V. Artyukhova (HSE), G. V. Gra- doselskaya (HSE), M. Е. Erofeeva (HSE), D. G. Zaitsev (HSE), S. A. Isaev (Adidas), V. A. Kalyagin (HSE), I. A. Karpov (HSE), A. P. Koldanov (HSE), I. I. Kuznetsov (HSE), S. V. Makrushin (Fi- nancial University), V. D. Matveenko (HSE), A. A. Milekhina (HSE), S. P. Moiseev (HSE), Y. V. Priestley (HSE), A. V. Semenov (HSE), I. B. Smirnov (HSE), D. A. Kharkina (HSE, St. Petersburg), C. F. Fey (Aalto University School of Business), and F. López-Iturriaga (Uni- versity of Valladolid).
In the last ten years or so since the publication of David Damrosch's groundbreaking book What Is World Literature? (2003), one has come to recognize the need to begin to locate the various facets of the currently prevalent Anglo-Saxon discourse of world literature with more conceptual rigour. The first imperative, it seems to me, is to pose the question: where is "world literature" ontologically?2 Some believe it to be an attestable network of texts that, aided especially by the process of globalization, enter into myriad relations—however complex and mediated, but still ultimately demonstrable—that reveal (or sometimes conceal) the hard facts of canon formation, cultural propaganda, ideological indoctrination, the book trade, etc. Others understand world literature above all as a prism through which to analyze literature, a "mode of reading." Sometimes these two beliefs coexist in the same body of work, making it prone to conceptual confusion. A third option, often coexisting with the other two, is to practice "world literature" as an intellectual discourse with clear ideological subtexts, frequently liberal and cosmopolitan. How we actually understand "world literature," as an attestable reality of texts or as a prism—one might even be tempted to add a "unit"—of comparison, in other words, a "mode of reading," is not a metaphysical issue. It has very real implications for the ways in which we approach questions such as how one should try to narrate the history of world literature. In addition to this fundamental differentiation, I also wish to suggest another, more concrete grid that should assist in this effort of locating world literature as a construct. This grid is essentially chronotopic and consists of several vectors. One needs to be aware of at least four major reference points: time, space, language, and, crucially, what one could term self-reflexivity—how literature itself reflects on, and creates images of, "world literature," thus opening up spaces for interrogation and dissent from the currently prevalent notions of world literature. In what follows, I will address these four points in sections of varying length.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.