Wetting properties of structured interfaces composed of surface-attached spherical nanoparticles
The influence of the external pressure and surface energy on the wetting transition at nanotextured interfaces is studied using molecular dynamics and continuum simulations. The surface roughness of the composite interface is introduced via an array of spherical nanoparticles with controlled wettability. We find that in the absence of an external pressure, the liquid interface is flat and its location relative to the solid substrate is determined by the particle size and the local contact angle. With increasing pressure on the liquid film, the interface becomes more curved and the three-phase contact line is displaced along the spherical surface but remains stable due to re-entrant geometry. It is demonstrated that the results of molecular dynamics simulations for the critical pressure of the Cassie-Baxter wetting state agree well with the estimate of the critical pressure obtained by numerical minimization of the interfacial energy.
The quantum nuclear effects are studied in water using centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) method. The aim is the calibration of CMD implementation in LAMMPS. The calculated intramolecular energy, atoms gyration radii and radial distribution functions are shown in comparison with previous works. The work is assumed to be the step toward to solution of the discrepancy between the simulation results and the experimental data of liquid n-alkane properties in our previous works.
Molecular dynamics study of shear viscosity behavior of liquid aluminum is performed. The embedded atom method potential is used at the simulation of isobaric cooling. The viscosity is calculated using the Green–Kubo formula. The stress autocorrelation functions are obtained in the range 300–1200 K. The calculated kinematic viscosity is in agreement with the experimental data for the temperatures above melting temperature. The steep change of the shear viscosity is found below 650 K which we associate with the glass transition and is in a good agreement with the temperature which is obtained using the calorimetric criterion Kolotova et al (2015 J. Non-Cryst. Solids 429 98). The viscosity coefficient can not be calculated using the direct atomistic simulations below that temperature
It is well recognized that excessive ice accumulation at low-temperature conditions can cause significant damage to civil infrastructure. The passive anti-icing surfaces provide a promising solution to suppress ice nucleation and enhance ice removal. However, despite extensive efforts, it remains a challenge to design anti-icing surfaces with low ice adhesion. Using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that surfaces with single-walled carbon nanotube array (CNTA) significantly reduce ice adhesion due to the extremely low solid areal fraction. It was found that the CNTA surface exhibits up to a 45% decrease in the ice adhesion strength in comparison with the atomically smooth graphene surface. The details of the ice detachment from the CNTA surface were examined for different water-carbon interaction energies and temperatures of the ice cube. Remarkably, the results of MD simulations demonstrate that the ice detaching strength depends linearly on the ratio of the ice-surface interaction energy and the ice temperature. These results open the possibility for designing novel robust surfaces with low ice adhesion for passive anti-icing applications.
Molecular-level knowledge of the thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of water confined by interfaces and nanopores of various materials is crucial for quantitative understanding and prediction of many natural and technological processes, including carbon sequestration, water desalination, nuclear waste storage, cement chemistry, fuel cell technology, etc. Computational molecular modeling is capable to significantly complement the experimental investigations of such systems by providing invaluable atomic-scale information leading to improved understanding of the specific effects of the substrate structure and composition on the structure, dynamics and reactivity of interfacial and nano-confined aqueous solutions. This paper offers a brief overview of recent efforts to quantify some of these effects for individual H2O molecules and hydrated ions confined at the interfaces and in nanopores of several typical hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials. The first molecular layer of aqueous solution at all substrates is often highly ordered, indicating reduced translational and orientational mobility of the H2O molecules. This ordering cannot be simply described as “ice-like”, but rather resembles the behavior of supercooled water or amorphous ice, although with very significant substrate-specific variations.
In this work, we perform coexistence simulations of methane hydrates for pressures up to 5000 bar for different water models. We calculate the kinetic stability boundary of the superheated metastable sI structure and analyze the effects of the heating rate, system size and cage occupancy. We also report molecular dynamics simulation of several possible structuresfor the new hydrogen hydrate clathrate. We show the strength of molecular simulation as a supplement tool for the analysis of experimental data. © 2015 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cooling of tokamak boundary plasma owing to radiation of non-fully stripped lithium ions is considered as a promising way for protection of plasma facing elements (PFE) in tokamak. It may be effectively realized when the main part of lithium ions are involved in the closed circuit of migration between plasma and PFE surface. Such an approach may be implemented with the use of lithium device whose hot (500-600 °C) area to be effected by plasma serves as a Li-emitter and the cold part (∼180 °C) as a Li-collector in the shadow. Capillary-pore system (CPS) provides the returning of collected and condensed lithium to emitting zone by capillary forces. The main goals of the last T-11M lithium experiments were investigating Li ions transport in the tokamak scrape of layer (SOL) and their collecting by different kinds of limiters. The design of devices based on lithium CPS with different ratio of emitting/collecting area is the main subject of this paper. © 2015 The Authors.
Computer simulations are fast growing approach for doing research in sciences. It is auxiliary to experimental and analytical research. The main goal of the conference is in the development of methods and algorithms which take into account trends in the hardware development, and which may help to intensive research. Conference should play role of the venue were senior scientists and students may have opportunity to speak each other and exchange ideas and views on the developments in the area of high-performance computing in most sciences.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
It is demonstrated that the interaction of a two-level quantum emitter (atom, molecule, etc) with a plasmonic nanoparticle (prolate nanospheroid) in an external laser field features either an essential increase (up to a few orders of magnitude) or reduction (up to a few times) of the total decay rate of the emitter in specific areas around the nanoparticle in contrast to its decay rate in a vacuum. It is also shown that the resonance fluorescence spectrum of the emitter in close proximity to a plasmonic nanoparticle is very sensitive to both the location of the emitter around the nanoparticle and to polarization of the near-field, which depends in turn on the polarization of the incident laser field. This can be used in engineering potential quantum optics experiments with quantum emitters in the near-field, as well as for 3D nanoscopy of the near-field by registering the resonance fluorescence spectra of quantum emitters scattered in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanoparticle.
The effect of spherical SiO2 nanoparticles of 20 to 80 nm in diameter embedded into the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer of organic solar cells (OSC) based on star-shaped oligomers on their efficiency was studied experimentally in detail. Measurements and analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of the samples, their absorption spectra and study of the morphology of the surface of the buffer layer with embedded nanoparticles were carried out. It is shown an increase in the OSE efficiency for the case of embedded into the PEDOT:PSS layer SiO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 and 50 nm, which slightly depends on the concentration of the nanoparticles in the buffer layer.
We will present the novel experimental far-field optical microscopy technique for detection of single nanoparticles, which weakly absorb a visible light and are characterized by refractive index close to its value in nearby environment (including particles of organic and biological origin: polymer nanoparticles, microand extracellular vesicles, liposomes, viruses etc)
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.