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## Hilbert schemes of lines and conics and automorphism groups of Fano threefolds

We discuss various results on Hilbert schemes of lines and conics and automorphism groups of smooth Fano threefolds of Picard rank 1. Besides a general review of facts well known to experts, the paper contains some new results, for instance, we give a description of the Hilbert scheme of conics on any smooth Fano threefold of index 1 and genus 10. We also show that the action of the automorphism group of a Fano threefold X of index 2 (respectively, 1) on an irreducible component of its Hilbert scheme of lines (respectively, conics) is faithful if the anticanonical class of X is very ample except for some explicit cases.

We use these faithfulness results to prove finiteness of the automorphism groups of most Fano threefolds and classify explicitly all Fano threefolds with infinite automorphism group. We also discuss a derived category point of view on the Hilbert schemes of lines and conics, and use it to identify some of them.

Marc Haiman has reduced Macdonald Positivity Conjecture to a statement about geometry of the Hilbert scheme of points on the plane, and formulated a generalization of the conjecture where the symmetric group is replaced by the wreath product of S_n and Z/rZ. He has proven the original conjecture by establishing the geometric statement about the Hilbert scheme, as a byproduct he obtained a derived equivalence between coherent sheaves on the Hilbert scheme and coherent sheaves on the orbifold quotient of A^{2n} by the symmetric group S_n. A short proof of a similar derived equivalence for any symplectic quotient singularity has been obtained by the first author and Kaledin via quantization in positive characteristic. In the present note we prove various properties of these derived equivalences and then deduce generalized Macdonald positivity for wreath products.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Let X be a Q-Fano 3-fold of rank 1 with qQ(X)=qF(X)=2 and KX not Cartier. Let A be a Weil divisor on X such that −KX = 2A. Then dim |A| ≤ 4. Moreover, if dim |A| = 4, then X belongs to the single irreducible family.

We introduce the notion of an instanton bundle on a Fano threefold of index 2. For such bundles we give an analogue of a monadic description and discuss the curve of jumping lines. The cases of threefolds of degree 5 and 4 are considered in a greater detail.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.