Determinants of the Policy Impact of Analytical Communities in Russian Regions: Cases of Karelia, Tatarstan and Saratov
This paper evaluates the policy impact of analytical communities in three Russian regions (Karelia, Tatarstan and Saratov). Based on the existing methods to assess the political power of think tanks, the authors develop a method to evaluate this impact. The authors test this method using the empirical data and findings from interviews, workshops with representatives of analytical communities of the three regions, and from observations and assessments of experts in regional politics. In conclusion, the authors argue that the capacity of analytical communities to impact policy change in a region depends on the level of political competition and pluralism and democratic institutions in the region; the level of consolidation of the analytical community, its autonomous political status and authority.
The present paper targets at the analysis of indirect and direct speech as main techniques of intertextual representation in English media discourse and subjects to conscious scrutiny the relationship between quotation sources and the way it is introduced in the text, considering reporting verbs and authors’ intentions while resorting to intertextuality. The article dwells on the comparative analysis of intertextuality representation in two newspaper articles on the natural disaster Hurricane Sandy in the USA and effects authors achieve when using this technique.
Тhe article analyzes specifics of social control as "influence", turning to the "subjectness" of social actors under control. Consideration is given to the specifics that should be accounted for in social control with connection to the postmodernist trend.
In his book, Alexander Marey explores the history of the concept of authority. Along with power, authority is one of the most important concepts of political and social philosophy. But despite the fact that the contexts in which the term “authority” occurs, as well as the overall meaning of the concept, are quite familiar, the concept remains understudied, and its history has never before been written. The author examines the nature of authority, the ways in which authority is related to power, morality, politics, and law. In this book, the reader will find answers to many fundamental questions. What is the secret of influence of one person on another? What are the mechanisms of subordination? Why was the concept of authority of such importance for the Roman Republic, for the Christian monarchies of the Middle Ages, and for the authoritarian regimes of the XX century? What might the future of this concept be? All these questions are discussed in the book “Authority, or Submission without Violence”.
We consider an application of power indices, which take into account preferences of agents for coalition formation proposed for an analysis of power distribution in elected bodies to reveal most powerful (central) nodes in networks. These indices take into account the parameters of the nodes in networks, a possibility of group influence from the subset of nodes to single nodes, and intensity of short and long interactions among the nodes.
After decades of dominant Marxism-Leninism, the post-Soviet Russian political space offers a multiplicity of discourses associated with the contemprary state and its various organs - such as the party, the presidential administration, the burocracies and media - or with the different places of ideological production revealing plurality and fluidity within Russian political languages and evoking many of the neo-conservativist ideological constructs promoted by the Kremlin. The apparent demise of Russian notions of Liberalism, its polymorphism, the influence of the Soviet experience, perestroika, the effects of the turbulent 1990s, in addiction to the effect of Western thought and foreign policies on Russia's liberal ideas and expectations, determine the role of the remaining institutions and actors that promote political , economic, and constitutional liberalism and manifest an alternative discourse that, although weakened, is still credible.
Analytical communities for the goal of this paper can be defined as loosely united clusters of professionals doing joint or related work in policy analysis, research and development, who frequently work together on common analytical goals and clients, while not necessarily form a special organizational structure which differ them from think tank. Examples of analytical communities could be university research departments, regular authors of one analytical journal, members of certain intellectual clubs, or regularly meeting informal research groups, including individual intellectuals working together on the regular basis. The goal of this paper is to show an important connection between regional and local analytical communities and local administrations of the Russian regions to specify a unique role the analytical communities can play in strategic planning, providing local administrations both with data, ideas, solutions, and scenarios of social developments, which local authorities are interested to get the answers to.
Managers in five nations rated scenarios exemplifying indigenous forms of informal influence whose cultural origins were concealed. Locally generated scenarios illustrated episodes of guanxi, wasta, jeitinho, svyazi and pulling strings. Local scenarios were judged representative of local influence processes but so too were some scenarios derived from other contexts. Furthermore, many scenarios were rated as more typical in non-local contexts. While these influence processes are found to be widely disseminated, they occur more frequently in contexts characterized by high self-enhancement values, low self-transcendence values and high endorsement of business corruptibility. Implications for a fuller understanding of local business practices are discussed.
Current technological innovations and market are increasingly reflected in the internal environment of many organizations. Adaptation of a company's internal aspects to the new market conditions has become the time feature. It should be noted that today's organizations are a complex network of individual and group interests. Organizational culture is the principle feature characterizing any (in our case, private) manufacturing plant. The research shows that organizational culture is conservative; however, it can adjust to changes in the internal and external environment. This paradox could be explained by the fact that organizational culture may exist in the minds of people who are able to adapt to the new situation but hardly change their beliefs. Analysis of the existing theoretical approaches and management practices in the field of organizational culture has allowed the authors to form a semantic field, which reflects interpretation of organizational culture and defines the purpose, nature and tools of managerial influence. The semantic field has its own specific strengths and limitations which can be used to maximize the company's profit. Thus, organizational culture of an enterprise is believed to be based on diversity or sometimes discrepancy of stakeholders' interests, assuming that in the context of organizational culture these interests are interdependent, since meeting one party's interests cannot be fully achieved when ignoring those of the other party. Hence a group of people expressing certain involvement can affect the balance of power and achieve their goals, pursuing their own interests. Such interdependence, different balance of power in decision-making on the nature and dynamics of organizational culture, availability of potential conflicts of stakeholders' interests, involved in this process and, finally, scarce resources of an enterprise tend to reinforce this influence on organizational behavior and organizational culture. The authors interpret organizational culture in terms of stakeholder theory and identified the four main positions of the stakeholders in the matrix describing stakeholders' influence and participation in organizational culture: Constitutive Stakeholders, Key Stakeholders, Adynamic Stakeholders, Extirpated Stakeholders. Besides, Influence, Involvement, Reception were specified as relevant attributes of stakeholders. It enables us to develop the method of detecting critical subjects, whose interests must be respected when forming the content-related configuration of organizational culture; critical issue is not how organizations should be built to maximize efficiency, but rather whose preferences and interests should be served by an organization. In this article the authors examine organizational culture in the context of coincidence or intersection of company stakeholders' interests. In view of this, the principle theoretical aspects of organizational culture and the stakeholder theory have been studied. The analysis of research into these problems has been used to identify stakeholder groups and develop the methods of their determination.