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## Towards mirror symmetry for varieties of general type

The goal of this paper is to propose a theory of mirror symmetry for varieties of general type. Using Landau–Ginzburg mirrors as motivation, we describe the mirror of a hypersurface of general type (and more generally varieties of non-negative Kodaira dimension) as the critical locus of the zero fibre of a certain Landau–Ginzburg potential. The critical locus carries a perverse sheaf of vanishing cycles. Our main result shows that one obtains the interchange of Hodge numbers expected in mirror symmetry. This exchange is between the Hodge numbers of the hypersurface and certain Hodge numbers defined using a mixed Hodge structure on the hypercohomology of the perverse sheaf.

This paper suggests a new approach to questions of rationality of threefolds based on category theory. Following M. Ballard, D. Favero, L. Katzarkov (ArXiv:1012.0864) and D. Favero, L. Katzarkov (Noether--Lefschetz Spectra and Algebraic cycles, in preparation) we enhance constructions from A. Kuznetsov (arXiv:0904.4330) by introducing Noether--Lefschetz spectra --- an interplay between Orlov spectra (C. Oliva, Algebraic cycles and Hodge theory on generalized Reye congruences, Compos. Math. 92, No. 1 (1994) 1--22) and Hochschild homology. The main goal of this paper is to suggest a series of interesting examples where above techniques might apply. We start by constructing a sextic double solid $X$ with 35 nodes and torsion in $H^3(X,\ZZ)$. This is a novelty --- after the classical example of Artin and Mumford (1972), this is the second example of a Fano threefold with a torsion in the 3-rd integer homology group. In particular $X$ is non-rational. We consider other examples as well --- $V_{10}$ with 10 singular points and double covering of quadric ramified in octic with 20 nodal singular points. After analyzing the geometry of their Landau--Ginzburg models we suggest a general non-rationality picture based on Homological Mirror Symmetry and category theory.

We consider mirror symmetry for Fano manifolds, and describe how one can recover the classification of 3-dimensional Fano manifolds from the study of their mirrors. We sketch a program to classify 4-dimensional Fano manifolds using these ideas.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.