Motifs of Soqotri Narratives: Towards a Comparative-Typological Analysis
The article is an attempt at comparative analysis of motifs and plots of the oral literature of Soqotra (Gulf of Aden, Yemen). Both the early recordings made in the beginning of the 20th century by D.H. Muller and the recent ones, carried out by V. Naumkin and his team, are involved. For each story we have tried to find parallels in the oral traditions of the Old World, previously collected and analyzed in the framework of Yu. Berezkin's electronic database. The main directions of the cultural links between Soqotra and the external world have thus been established. Not unexpectedly, most of the parallels connect Soqotra with the Near East, but some plots and motifs are also known_ sometimes exclusively_ in South Asia and North-West Africa. Truly archaic plots and motifs are very rare and typically reflected in lower mythology only. Etiological stories are rare, and no cosmological myths have been recorded.
In the present article two eleventh-century phrases inscribed many times on the walls of the St Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (коуни рони and парехъ мари) are shown to be of Semitic provenance. The authors provide the linguistic arguments which support the claim of a Hebrew source for коуни рони and a Syriac one for парехъ мари. In addition, we offer a reconstruction of the historical pragmatic context in which the phrases can be situated. It is proposed that the коуни рони inscriptions can be connected with the seizure of Novgorod and the plundering of St Sophia by Vseslav of Polotsk in the year 1066. They should be regarded as the oldest tangible proof of contacts with Jews and Hebrew in Rus’. In the case of the парехъ мари inscriptions, the hypothesis is put forward that the author was a certain Efrem, a local citizen, possibly a clergyman, who was a Syrian by descent.
The article deals with the causes of modern dualistic view of women in media and mass communication. In the article author analyzes the reasons for the transformation of the female image from the time of the Ancient World to the present day. The author addresses issues of social and cultural influence on the distorted view of the function of women in society. A wide range of test materials (folklore, medieval works, materials of media, etc.) makes it possible to draw conclusions on the continuing bifurcation in Summaries - 274 - the perception of the female image and constant presence of the attributes and patterns of social behavior that differ sharply from each other.
Elena Smilyanskaya. Women’s spiritual leadership in an Old Believer Community at the end of the twentieth century—notes from field observations
Based on extensive field work, this article explores the profound changes wrought by the feminization of priestless Old Believer communities. While literate men were traditionally in charge of religious education, their growing absence in Old Believer communities gave rise to “spiritual mothers” who embraced new interpretations of texts and theological values including the justification of the faith, intercession of saints, and the symbolism of sacred spaces. Spiritual mothers’ interpretation of biblical and hagiographical texts grew increasingly divorced from written texts and Old Believer tradition, offering new interpretations of long-held liturgical and doctrinal norms. This decline of book-centered religiosity among some priestless Old Believers thus resulted in a fusing of ancient and novel interpretations that spiritual mothers used to guide their communities.
The article features translation problems associated with Russian fairy tale renderings into English and revealed during their comparative analysis. The tales seem to represent fairly complex verbal signs and cultural phenomena whose status borders on cultural symbolism and/or semiotic artifacts. Translator perception patterns driven by the fairy tale message search for its further code-switching appear to be strongly dependent on referencing. Text surface structure is referenced to the wonder-land world of fairy tales as a certain eventful scenario. A cross-language analysis of Russian-English subtexts taken in parallels allows for tracing some text-internal translation tactics.
The educational textbook in an accessible form is given to the representation of such complex issues as the nature of myth and features of mythological mentality. The myth is considered in comparison with some of the genres of folklore (fairy tale, legend) and in connection with the pagan ritual. In the Appendix to the book includes works of the classics of Russian folklore and Ethnography (F.I. Buslaev, A. N. Afanasiev, A. N. Veselovskii, A. A. Potebnia, D. K. Zelenin, V. Ya. Propp, V. N. Toporov, etc.). The book is intended for high school students, who are interested in the problems of Philology, And may be used by them in their own creative work. The book will be interesting for teachers of literature.
The present article continues the investigation of the Soqotri verbal system undertaken by the Russian-Soqotri fieldwork team. The article focuses on the so-called “weak” and “geminated” roots in the basic stem. The investigation is based on the analysis of full paradigms (perfect, imperfect and jussive) of more than 170 “weak” and “geminated” Soqotri verbs.