Little Known Aspects of Veneration of the Old Testament Sabbath in Medieval Ethiopia
The Church of Ethiopia did observe both the Old Testament or the Jewish Sabbath and its Christian counterpart. This practice became one of the distinctive features of the Ethiopian Christianity. In various periods of its history the problem of veneration of the Jewish Sabbath provoked a lasting controversy among the country’s clergy. It was under the reign of the King Zär’a Ya‘ǝqob, in the mid-15th century AD, that the observance of both Sabbaths became the officially accepted by the Ethiopian Church and the State. However, some evidences of this custom can be traced for many centuries before. Following the confession of faith of the King Claudius (1540–1559), the priority was given to the celebration of Sunday. The author of the article was fortunate to discover several cases of the preferential veneration of Sunday during a military campaign of AD 1781, described in the chronicle of the King Täklä Giyorgis I.
The present article deals with a remarkable example of Ethiopian grammar and lexicographic treatise (Säwasəw), preserved in the Manuscript Department of the National Library of Russia in St. Petesrburg. The tradition of composing compilations of that kind goes back in Ethiopia to the period of foundation of the Gondarine Kingdom in the 17th century AD, which was noted with general flourishing of culture in the region. In all probability, that genre was borrowed from the Coptic Arabic tradition. Initially those treatises were created and used as glossaries for Biblical and liturgical texts. Later they began to be applied for education purposes as textbooks in monastic and church traditional schools. Such manuscript handbooks included lists of Ge’ez words with parallel Amharic translations and often grammatical forms of verbs. The grammar treatise in question is distinguished not only with a series of specific features, proper both to its contents and structure, but also with its colophon, that shed light on the history of creation of the manuscript and its further destiny. It was compiled outside Ethiopia, in the bosom of the Coptic Church. This circumstance explains the presence of some peculiarities in it in comparison with the most common examples of those lists. Glosses in Ge‘ez are translated not only in Amharic, but in Arabic too. The manuscript was intended for Peter VII, the Coptic Alexandrian Patriarch in AD 1809–1852, who was initially prepared to become the Metropolitan of the Ethiopian Church. Later in Ethiopia, which was passing through the sorrowful period of political disintegration, there was a need in a new head of the Church, who should be ordained and sent to that country by Peter VII
This paper outlines the essential aspects of the Machiavelli’s religious concept. This theory was invented by Machiavelli in 16th century, and played a key role in the formation and development of the Reformation process in Germany. In this work we will try to rediscover Machiavelli’s religious concept, using work of some modern interpreters of his philosophical legacy.
The author addresses the question of the relationship between religious and national identity, in particular to those cases where there is their identifi cation. The author focuses on the Spanish experience of 1930-s, when formed the ideological construction of the so-called national-Catholicism was formed, justifying special spiritual mission of the nation, based on its alleged inherent rejection of democracy. Over the next few decades, the National Catholicism played the role of the offi cial ideology of the Franco regime. The article compares the Spanish experience with the situation in today's Russia, where, according to the author, there is a tendency for "nationalization" of religion, its politicization and indoctrination.
There were two equivalent geniuses in the history of nineteenth centuries thought, the period when all main meanings of Russian mentality were being organized and reflections about possible destiny of Russia in the context of world history were being established. Their names are Konstantin Leontiev and Vladimir Solovyov. The both have their backgrounds in Slavyanofil's ideas, which both thinkers had overcome in their own unique way. Despite the fact, that they have had completely different points of views, Leontiev was fascinated by Solovyov. Solovyov and Leontiev were trying to create their own historiosophical projects, which were destined to change the course of the history. Both philosophers were called utopists, but actually they didn’t think about the utopism of their projects. They had chosen the different ways, but at the end they had come to the same conclusion: the world history is closed to its own end, and the most important thing for every person is to find his own place in the oncoming eschatological crisis.
Studies in Ethiopian Languages, Literature, and History. Festschrift for Getatchew Haile Presented by his Friends and Colleagues