О судьбе конструкции jako recitativum в русских летописях XI—XVI вв.
This paper describes historical changes in the pattern and semantics of the syntactic structure with jako recitativum, i.e., direct speech introduced by the particle jako ‘that, how’. This construction occurs widely in Russian chronicles of the eleventh through sixteenth centuries. In some chronicles jako recitativum is used as a semantically neutral model of the reported speech, while in other chronicles it expresses the narrator’s distancing himself from the content of the reported utterance as well as epistemic modality in situations related to gossip or deceit. It is shown that the modal use of jako recitativum is a result of functional distribution between two patterns of reported speech such as jako recitativum and indirect speech formed on the basis of a subordinate clause.
The paper draws attention to the epistemological obstacles that prevented Wittgenstein from acknowledging the modern view of modal logic, including the so-called propositional attitudes. Whilst suggesting a retrospective overview of the logic of epistemic modalities, it is argued that such obstacles primarily rely upon the nature of the logical space depicted in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus as well as the metaphysical status of the subject. Some relevant quotes are recalled to justify the essentially universal feature of logic according to the early Wittgenstein.
The Caucasus is the place with the greatest linguistic variation in Europe. The present volume explores this variation within the tense, aspect, mood, and evidentiality systems in the languages of the North-East Caucasian (or Nakh-Daghestanian) family. The papers of the volume cover the most challenging and typologically interesting features such as aspect and the complicated interaction of aspectual oppositions expressed by stem allomorphy and inflectional paradigms, grammaticalized evidentiality and mirativity, and the semantics of rare verbal categories such as the deliberative (‘May I go?’), the noncurative (‘Let him go, I don’t care’), different types of habituals (gnomic, qualitative, non-generic), and perfective tenses (aorist, perfect, resultative). The book offers an overview of these features in order to gain a broader picture of the verbal semantics covering the whole North-East Caucasian family. At the same time it provides in-depth studies of the most fascinating phenomena.
The reconstructions of the Povest′ vremmenyx let made by L. Müller (2001) and D. Ostrowski (2003) have prompted discussion of issues related to textual criticism. I begin the article by summarizing the state of the debate and then, responding to Ostrowski’s defense of his position (2007), I present additional evidence to support my claims that the version of the PVL in the Novgorod First Chronicle is independent of the archetype of its six full copies and that the Hypatian branch of the PVL is linked with the Radziwiłł branch by contamination. Questions concerning the nature of the contamination are also discussed: what direction it operated in and which representatives of the two branches of the tradition were involved in it.
Since the issue of intertextuality was introduced, it has been hotly debated and employed by professionals in various disciplines time and again. In media discourse reporters widely use this powerful tool for suiting their own purposes. At writers’ disposal, reported speech as one of the most common forms of intertextuality allows gaining readers’ confidence, interpreting information subjectively or even detaching from what is said. It is claimed that the writers’ pursued effect is achieved not only through the content of the reported speech itself but also through a correctly chosen reporting verb. The present research targets at the comparative analysis of reporting verbs introducing direct and indirect speech and focuses on the peculiarities of the latter ones, subjecting to conscious scrutiny their illocutionary forces. In order to account for the impact of these verbs the semantic analysis is carried out, which results in the identification of their lexical presupposition and their classification. The findings suggest that in media discourse the choice of reporting verbs discloses the narrator’s perspective, elucidating the point of view of the person quoting instead of the quoted one. The research outcomes reveal semantic peculiarities of verbs used to refer to the ideas of other writers and researchers and therefore assist people in academic reading and writing.
After an introductory chapter that provides an overview to theoretical issues in tense, aspect, modality and evidentiality, this volume presents a variety of original contributions that are firmly empirically-grounded based on elicited or corpus data, while adopting different theoretical frameworks. Thus, some chapters rely on large diachronic corpora and provide new qualitative insight on the evolution of TAM systems through quantitative methods, while others carry out a collostructional analysis of past-tensed verbs using inferential statistics to explore the lexical grammar of verbs. A common goal is to uncover semantic regularities and variation in the TAM systems of the languages under study by taking a close look at context. Such a fine-grained approach contributes to our understanding of the TAM systems from a typological perspective. The focus on well-known Indo-European languages (e.g. French, German, English, Spanish) and also on less commonly studied languages (e.g. Hungarian, Estonian, Avar, Andi, Tagalog) provides a valuable cross-linguistic perspective.
The article presents an overview of code-switching and other cases of the juxtaposition of two languages and borrowings from Russian in Kalmyk based on the empirical data. Code-switching is a very common phenomenon in communication among Kalmyks. On a functional level, it is often used as a communicative strategy and, on the structural level, texts provide evidence of two main patterns of nonce borrowings adaptation. The first one is the light verb strategy with auxiliary ke- ‘do’ and an infinitive of the Russian verb, the second accommodation strategy for a noun phrase is a pattern with verb gi- ‘say’ which exhibits features of grammaticalization. It is demonstrated in the article that the sources of a marker of borrowing nouns may be both code-switching in the direct and reported speech with a verb of saying and a construction with a form of habitual participle gidǝg.
The paper considers the less known aspects in the functioning of Russian lexical “xeno” markers, in particular, of the particle jakoby ‘allegedly, ostensibly’. Traditionally described as expressing the falsity of a proposition contained in somebody’s utterance, in conjunction with a negative assessment of the utterer as aware of its falsity, jakoby displays very different usages in the language of contemporary mass media. Namely, it is frequently used as a mere marker of evidentiality, without an obligatory assessment of the proposition as false or of its source as untruthful. In fact, it can even be used to refer to statements that are treated as true within the very same text, only to indicate that the source of this information is not the writer herself but somebody else (e.g., a different news agency), in what might be termed as “safety” strategy. Besides, jakoby in its mass media usages demonstrates unusual syntactic behaviors, namely shifts in scope, where it is placed before the speech verb rather than before the challenged proposition: jakoby utverzhdat’, chto P ‘jakoby claim that P’ instead of utverzhdat’, chto jakoby P ‘claim that jakoby P’. However, the study of the Russian-English parallel corpus reveals that these usages are not as unusual as they may appear. In Russian translations of English texts jakoby sometimes functions as a translation of the English supposedly, allegedly, ostensibly or other (e.g., verbal) markers of uncertainty, but more frequently occurs with no apparent stimulus in the source, merely to mark indirect quotation. It appears therefore that there is a certain need in the Russian language for a neutral evidentiality marker. It is occasionally filled with jakoby, which in this case displays a tendency for grammaticalization: it expresses that the source of information is other than the speaker herself (but contains no other semantic components), and takes syntactic scope over the speech verb instead of the proposition it challenges.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.