Prospects for using peat and products of its processing in municipal power engineering in rural and remote areas
This article presents a detailed analysis of the economic efficiency of peat utilization for generating electricity and heat in Russian rural areas and decentralized power consumption areas on the basis of the comparison of power tariffs (prices) and full costs of peat-based electricity and heat production. The research was performed using the model-information complex detailed with respect to municipal areas and major peat deposits that was developed at the Energy Institute, National Research University Higher School of Economics. It is shown that the firing of lignin helium fuel (LHF) granules that are made from peat extracted by the excavating method according to the new, patented technology is considered most efficient. In nongasified areas, the total cost of heat power that is generated in new boiler houses on the basis of LHF granules is often lower than the total heat cost for the gasification of the area and construction of gas boiler houses. In some cases, the heat cost in gasified areas is lower when using a boiler house based on LHF granules than that provided by the conversion of a boiler house to gas fuel. It is also shown that the construction of peat-based heat sources with the overall power of up to 27600 GJ/h that generate a heat power of up to 167.5 million GJ/year will be economically efficient in the coming years, provided that the tariffs for energy sources remain the same. Taking into account the supportive measures that were accepted on a legislative basis in July 2016, sources with the total power of up to 70 GW may be effective for peat-based plants with combined heat-andpower generation. To stimulate the utilization of peat in decentralized power consumption areas and rural areas located in the vicinity of deposits of this fuel type, it is also suggested to make amendments in the normative legal base.
This article describes the results of sociological research on estimation of condition and development prospects of federalism in Russia, which was conducted by ZIRCON Research Group in January - May 2011. The opinion of population and elite groups of four regions about the foundations of Russian federalism development, administrative-territorial system of the Russian Federation and its principles, relations between subjects-regions and federative centre is presented. The results of the research indicate that at the moment a request for political and administrative autonomy of the subjects of the Federation is not obviously formulated by either citizens or regional elite groups. Regional identity is not a common phenomenon. The authors mark out necessary factors of federalism development: expansion of economic self-dependence of regions, existence of ethno-national or regional identity of citizens, democratization and decentralization.
This report analyzes the architecture of fiscal decentralization in one hundred and ten countries as well as in major metropolitan areas. In the majority of these countries, local authorities are taking on more and more responsibilities for public investment and the provision of services that are essential for both economic development and the well being of their citizens. If increasing fiscal decentralization has been a global trend in recent decades, there are significant variations across and within regions and countries. Local budgets make up on average 25% of public expenditure in the countries of the European Union but less than 5% in many developing countries. Decentralization in terms of revenue and expenditure autonomy has also increased, however this has been uneven across countries and has seen greater advances in expenditure than in revenues, where sources remain limited and uncertain, especially for small and middle size cities. With accelerating urbanization and important shifts in the global context (climate change, increasing risk of natural disaster, migration, and demographic changes among others), current funding levels are insufficient for local governments to respond to the urbanization of poverty, growing investment requirements and other pressing needs. The economic and financial crisis that began in 2008 only worsened the situation. This book identifies universal challenges facing local government finance, as well as those more regional and country specific. Some of the most common are inadequate sources of revenue, unpredictable transfers and grants, excessive higher-level budget controls, and unfunded mandates. In addition to analyzing these challenges and opportunities, the report proposes recommendations to strengthen the fiscal role and performance of local governments around the world.
The given report is the result of implementation of the first component of the series of projects under the common title "Improving the use of economic instruments of water management in the Republic of Buryatia (lake Baikal basin)", implemented under the auspices of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Devlopment (OECD) in support of the water policy dialogue in the Republic of Buryatia in cooperation with the EU Water Initiative. The analytical report contains the results of the analysis of the use of economic instruments of water resources management in the Republic of Buryatia. According to the performed analysis some conclusions were made along with identification of key directions for improving application of instruments for water resources management in the Republic of Buryatia for further development within the framework of the project.
The paper looks at the impact of imperfect assessment of water discharge on the level of surface water pollution and allocation of environmental budget in a framework of one river basin region. Analysis is based on the partial equilibrium model with unidirectional spatially accumulated external effect in the presence of partial natural absorbtion. The effect of water discharge assessment imperfection on the level of water pollution at every location and social welfare is investigated. It is shown that decentralization accompanied by the improvement in water discharge quality assessment may reduce the welfare loss. However, even under complete elimination of assessment imperfections resource allocation under decentralization is still inefficient.
качество воды, потери в благосостоянии, искажения в оценке загрязнения, децентрализация, Water discharge quality, welfare loss, imperfect assessment, Decentralization
Peculiarities of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems, predetermined by observation of the basic principles, are shown: constant monitoring of external environment for determining new possibilities and actual problems and determining the need for managerial decisions; founding on materials of marketing research, conduct of marketing communications for informing and supporting loyalty of interested parties in the process of implementation of decisions; and striving for increasing or at least preserving the uniqueness and effectiveness of business system during decision making (criterion of optimality of decisions).
The deepening rift between the system's potential and the challenges of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions make the transformation of Russia's state apparatus a matter of the nearest future; while, barring a radical overhaul, its preservation until 2025 is virtually impossible. Two major trends and resulting changes in administrative organization will determine Russia's political development processes in the coming years: reformatting relations between the authorities and society and reconfiguring arrangements between the federal center and regions. The center-regions relations dynamics is analyzed in terms of long pendulum oscillations with pendulum moving now from the model of 'federation of corporations' to the model of 'federation of regions'.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.