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## The Metric Travelling Salesman Problem: The Experiment on Pareto-optimal Algorithms

The Metric Travelling Salesman Problem is a subcase of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP), where the triangle inequality holds. It is a key problem in combinatorial optimization. Solutions of the Metric TSP are generally used for costs minimization tasks in logistics, manufacturing, genetics and other fields. Since this problem is NP-hard, heuristic algorithms providing near optimal solutions in polynomial time will be considered instead of the exact ones. The aim of this article is to experimentally find Pareto optimal heuristics for Metric TSP under criteria of error rate and run time efficiency. Two real-life kinds of inputs are intercompared - VLSI Data Sets based on very large scale integration schemes and National TSPs that use geographic coordinates of cities. This paper provides an overview and prior estimates of seventeen heuristic algorithms implemented in C++ and tested on both data sets. The details of the research methodology are provided, the computational scenario is presented. In the course of computational experiments, the comparative figures are obtained and on their basis multi-objective optimization is provided. Overall, the group of Pareto-optimal algorithms for different consists of some of the MC, SC, NN, DENN, CI, GRD, CI + 2-Opt, GRD + 2-Opt, CHR and LKH heuristics.

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The Metric Travelling Salesman Problem is a subcase of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP), where the triangle inequality holds. It is a key problem in combinatorial optimization. Solutions of the Metric TSP are generally used for costs minimization tasks in logistics, manufacturing and genetics. Since this problem is NP-hard, heuristic algorithms providing near optimal solutions in polynomial time will be considered. The aim of this article is to find Pareto optimal heuristics for Metric TSP under criteria of error rate and run time efficiency. Two real-life kinds of inputs are intercompared - VLSI Data Sets based on very large scale integration schemes and National TSPs that use geographic coordinates. There is a classification of algorithms for Metric TSP in the article. Feasible heuristics and their prior estimates are described. The details of the research methodology are provided. Finally, results and prospective research are discussed.

The work carried out research and development of methods for the dynamic configuration of the smart thing's interfaces on the mobile devices with limited resources. This article describes a mathematical model of the environment for dynamic reconfigurable interfaces of smart things on mobile devices with limited resources, the method of assigning a set of basic interface elements to reconfigure interface of smart things and heuristic algorithm for dynamic smart thing's interface reconfiguration.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.

It is well-known that the class of sets that can be computed by polynomial size circuits is equal to the class of sets that are polynomial time reducible to a sparse set. It is widely believed, but unfortunately up to now unproven, that there are sets in EXPNP, or even in EXP that are not computable by polynomial size circuits and hence are not reducible to a sparse set. In this paper we study this question in a more restricted setting: what is the computational complexity of sparse sets that are *selfreducible*? It follows from earlier work of Lozano and Torán (in: Mathematical systems theory, 1991) that EXPNP does not have sparse selfreducible hard sets. We define a natural version of selfreduction, tree-selfreducibility, and show that NEXP does not have sparse tree-selfreducible hard sets. We also construct an oracle relative to which all of EXP is reducible to a sparse tree-selfreducible set. These lower bounds are corollaries of more general results about the computational complexity of sparse sets that are selfreducible, and can be interpreted as super-polynomial circuit lower bounds for NEXP.