Международно-правовой режим использования природных ресурсов Каспийского моря
The Caspian Sea is unique in many respects – environmentally, economically and geopolitically.
At the same time it is the cause of disputes concerning the legal regime of the use and protection
of natural resources and other legal disputes. This article deals primarily with the analysis of international
legal regulation of the use and protection of natural resources of the Caspian Sea by Caspian
Environmental management, technologies, products and services are commonly expected to provide significant economic opportunities for companies and countries. This is mainly due to increasing awareness among politicians, academics and the wider population on the importance of environmental aspects in daily life. Consequently demand for environmentally friendly solutions is expected to grow continuously in the next decade. The present study is part of a broader research project which examines the long-term science and technology (S&T) agenda in Russia up to 2030. The project's results were approved by the Prime Minister of Russia in early January 2014. Researchers from the National Research University Higher School of Economics carried out the research project at the request of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science between 2011 and 2013. The research comprised six interrelated spheres: ICT; biotechnology, medicine and public health; new materials and nanotechnologies; environmental management; transport and space systems; and energy efficiency and energy conservation. For each sphere, the project explored in-depth the global emergent challenges and opportunities, the risks, and their degree of influence on Russia. The authors analysed the most important potential market niches, products and services that are capable of radically shaping world markets and highlighted their competitive advantages. Within the framework of these priority science areas authors emphasised several spheres of particular potential value and compared the level of research carried out in Russia and the leading countries. The current paper also covers the analyses the natural resources sector made within a project aimed at integration of national and sectoral S&T Foresight studies funded by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science. Findings show that the potential applications for environmental products and services are manifold. The study is based on a thorough analysis of expert opinions and their assessment of future applications and the development of demand for these applications. However the authors note that the expert opinions included in the assessment of prospective products, services and markets, despite being based on rigorous assessment, still reflect expectations. Their opinions incorporate a degree of uncertainty especially with regard to how and when (or whether) the markets, technologies, products and services will develop in the expected ways.
This textbook has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the federal state educational standards of secondary vocational education. The system of legal regulation of environmental relations in Russia, especially the rights to natural resources, their origin and termination, management in the field of environmental protection and use of natural resources, payment for natural resources, especially the legal regimes of certain natural resources and facilities, the requirements in the field of environmental protection in the implementation of economic and other activities are structured and adapted methods of teaching legal disciplines relying on arbitration practice and the practice of law enforcement. Chapters provide background scientific information, as well as analytical tasks and issues that improve learning.
For students of educational institutions of secondary vocational education, as well as law students and anyone interested in environmental law.
The Treaty of Stolbovo (1617) was only the first step in making peace between Sweden and Muscovy at the end of the Time of Troubles. The delimitation process ended only in August 1621. This article describes the circumstances of the first stage of delimitation in Ingria in 1617-1618 that occurred at the same time that the "Lithuanian" menace directly threatened Moscow itself. Old residents, mostly local peasants, supported both the Swedish and Russian delimitation commissions. The result of that delimitation was a clear and transparent borderline that existed for more than eighty years. © koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2015.
The article focuses on the environmental and economic security of a State as the constituent elements of its national security protected by the principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources. It also analyses interdependency of the two, exposing their practical interconnection in a way that a threat to environmental stability almost necessarily affects economic stability of a State. At the same time, a right to permanent sovereignty over natural resources is not absolute and should be exercised so as not to endanger environmental and economic security of others.
The article aims to identify the nature of social transformations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) under illegal minerals mining and smuggling carried out by foreign mining companies, armed groups, criminal groups of neighboring countries, "war barons" and associated "agents". New forms of government and economic activities resulted from government's failure to provide citizens of the eastern parts of the country with required services. In the conditions of complete disregard of national laws and interests regulating social relations, new rules of interaction between individual groups and between individual groups and local and central government authorities were developed. These new forms of social development have nothing to do with chaos: numerous rival centers of power on the fringes of the country exercise effective control, provide services and exploit local population. Poor people of the richest eastern provinces of the DRC who do not benefit from extraction and export of valuable minerals are forced to develop their own "survival strategies", including illegal minerals mining and smuggling. Illegal economic activities form new “legalized” authorities, change values of the Congolese and transform the society. As a result, the anti-government system of public relations reached a high point of development in the eastern regions of the DRC.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/