В.К. Кантор. «Срубленное древо жизни». Судьба Николая Чернышевского.
The idea of “The Third Rome” has appeared in Russian thought at the beginning of ХVI century. Monk Filofey has concretized this theory. The theme of Rome has come in the culture of St. Petersburg with the help of Peter the Great. Since nineteenth century the theme of Rome has become the main theme between noble youth. It was maintained practically by every Russian thinker. There were two main tendencies of the development of the Third Rome’s idea: the theme of Russia as “The real third Rome”, successor of Christian values of Roman and Byzantine Empires, and also the theme “Decline of Rome” and “Collapse of Empire”.
In his article, the author tries to figure out how to put together the idea of rational egoism Russian thinker that is reasonable to selfishness, that is the beginning of the personal and impersonal communal idea. He comes to the conclusion that this is the realist view, trying to come not from a science fiction utopian hopes and realities of human life and Russian. As thinkers of the past (Machiavelli, Spinoza) Chernyshevsky believed that self-interest – given, it can not get rid of, but you can redirect to another benefit , pa – reasonable to. I must see their benefit in the benefit You. And the community – a fact of Russia, but this datum is necessary to find mechanisms that turn it into a defender of the individual.