Propagation of a whistler wave incident from above on the lower nightime ionosphere
The problems of reflection and transmission of a whistler wave incident in the nighttime ionosphere from above are considered. Numerical solution of the wave equations for a typical condition of the lower ionosphere is found. The solution area comprises both the region of strong wave refraction and a sharp boundary of the nighttime ionosphere ( 100 km). The energy reflection coefficient and horizontal wave magnetic field on the ground surface are calculated. The results obtained are important for analysis of the extremely low-frequency and very low-frequency (ELF–VLF) emission phenomena observed from both the satellites and the ground-based observatories.