Noun-incorporation in English as a valency-changing device
This article is an attempt to systematically present the results of a cognitive semantic analysis of lexemes denoting a human being. The study of the semantic structure of the words human being, man, person, personality and individual makes it possible to reconstruct the conceptual area «Homo sapiens», identify its main components and build a model reflecting a fragment of language-specific world-view, thus revealing the way human qualities are construed by English speakers
«Bankruptcy» Concept Within the Legal Linguistics Coordinates: Russian–English–French Approximations
The article addresses the notion of bankruptcy as perceived by speakers of current Russian, English and French languages both lawyers and participants in professional communication from other trades. Semantic structure of the term is identified based on its lexicographic and regulatory definitions.
The paper deals with comparative analysis of two groups of polysemantic words in Russian and in English proving the idea of relativity of the structural scheme of the polysemantic word. The specificity of the lingual unit is always relative and depends on the background against which the comparison is performed.
The article examines the formation of monologue speech and the infl uence of linguistic laws of incorporation and contamination on this process. It contains analysis of the semantic structure of monologue carried out on the basis of key words and nuclear tones of theme centres and their prosodic depiction. The analysis was performed on spontaneous monologues. The results of the acoustic analysis and statistics data were obtained through the computer programme Speech Analyzer
This research studies the influence of professional competence of EFL learners on their metaphor production. The task was approached through analyzing metaphors in the English written texts produced by Russian students with different competence in economics – the non-professional and professional competence level. Findings highlight similarities and divergence of metaphor use in L2 writing in terms of learners’ professional competence. The results of comparative analysis of specific features in metaphors produced at different professional competence levels reveal the quantitative and qualitative differences of what functions metaphors are used to perform and to what extent they are used accurately. With the shift from the non-professional to the professional competence level learners are able to use metaphors that combine a function of presenting abstract concepts with a discourse organising function in a more balanced way and make much more use of creative metaphors, and their metaphor production tends to be less influenced by L1 background. Practical recommendations suggest an improved research methodology for studying metaphor production in ESAP as well as a deeper understanding of ESP content and its structure.
The article examines the main trends in the study of the Stalinist period and the phenomenon of Stalinism in connection with the mass opening of the archives.