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## Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the *c*-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

In 2012, Gamayun, Iorgov, and Lisovyy conjectured an explicit expression for the Painlevé VI τ function in terms of the Liouville conformal blocks with central charge c = 1. We prove that the proposed expression satisfies Painlevé VI τ function bilinear equations (and therefore prove the conjecture). The proof reduces to the proof of bilinear relations on conformal blocks. These relations were studied using the embedding of a direct sum of two Virasoro algebras into a sum of Majorana fermion and Super Virasoro algebra. In the framework of the AGT correspondence, the bilinear equations on the conformal blocks can be interpreted in terms of instanton counting on the minimal resolution of $${\mathbb{C}^2/\mathbb{Z}_2}$$C2/Z2 (similarly to Nakajima–Yoshioka blow-up equations). © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

The sheaves of conformal blocks and conformal coinvariants of the twisted WZW model have a factorisation property and are locally free even at the boundary of the moduli space, where the elliptic KZ equations and the Baxter-Belavin elliptic r matrix degenerate to the trigonometric KZ equations and the trigonometric r matrix,o respectively. Etingof's construction of the elliptic KZ equations is geometrically interpreted.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

We outline recent developments relating Painlev ́e equations and 2D conformal field theory. Generic tau functions of Painlev ́e VI and Painlev ́e III_3 are written as linear combinations of c= 1 conformal blocks and their irregular limits. This provides explicit combinatorial series representations of the tau functions, and helps to establish connection formula for the tau function in the Painlev ́e VI case.

We develop a recursive approach to computing Neveu-Schwarz conformal blocks associated with n-punctured Riemann surfaces. This work generalizes the results of [1] obtained recently for the Virasoro algebra. The method is based on the analysis of the analytic properties of the superconformal blocks considered as functions of the central charge *c*. It consists of two main ingredients: the study of the singular behavior of the conformal blocks and the analysis of their asymptotic properties when *c* tends to infinity. The proposed construction is applicable for computing multi-point blocks in different topologies. We consider some examples for genus zero and one with different numbers of punctures. As a by-product, we propose a new way to solve the recursion relations, which gives more efficient computational procedure and can be applied to SCFT case as well as to pure Virasoro blocks.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.