Radiation-Induced Fault Simulation of SOI/SOS CMOS LSI’s Using Universal Rad-SPICE MOSFET Model
The methodology of modeling and simulation of environmentally induced faults in radiation hardened SOI/SOS CMOS IC’s is presented. It is realized at three levels: CMOS devices – typical analog or digital circuit fragments – complete IC’s. For this purpose, a universal compact SOI/SOS MOSFET model for SPICE simulation software with account for TID, dose rate and single event effects is developed. The model parameters extraction procedure is described in great depth taking into consideration radiation effects and peculiarities of novel radiation-hardened (RH) SOI/SOS MOS structures. Examples of radiation-induced fault simulation in analog and digital SOI/SOS CMOS LSI’s are presented for different types of radiation influence. The simulation results show the difference with experimental data not larger than 10‒20% for all types of radiation.
The article highlights the status of TCAD and SPICE modeling of CMOS, SOI CMOS, SiGe BiCMOS VLSI components intended for operation under the influence of radiation (neutrons, electrons, protons, y- and X-ray, single particle, pulsed radiation), high (up to +300°C) and low (up to –200°C) temperatures. TCAD and SPICE models of BJTs and MOSFETs, and methods for determining their parameters have been described. Further directions of TCAD and SPICE modeling of IС components have been considered.
The multi-level methodology for CMOS SOI/SOS IC element parameterization for VLSI radiation hardness prediction by CAD systems is developed. The methodology includes semiconductor technology simulation, CMOS SOI/SOS MOSFET device simulation with radiation effects, irradiated test structures investigation, radiation dependent SPICE model parameter extraction with ICCAP. The measured data of irradiated MOSFET test structures is used for TCAD calibration and SPICE model creation. The results show a good correlation between the simulated with the developed models and measured IC and VLSI response to the total dose and other components of the radiation environment.
This paper presents Low-T SPICE models of sub-micron MOSFETs, designed to calculate electronic circuits in the cryogenic temperature range (down to 4 K). The procedure for extracting the Low-T SPICE model parameters based on the measurement results or TCAD simulation of a standard set of I-V and C-V characteristics in the cryogenic temperature range has been developed.
This paper considers the development of digital circuit tests using continuous models of discrete devices. An algorithm is presented which makes it possible to solve the problem of finding test sets using continuous optimization. A generalized fault model is proposed which implements a unified approach to the representation of different types of faults in test generation. The proposed approach is implemented as a software environment for research and development of fault models and algorithms for finding digital circuit tests. For testing, a system of automated test generation for constant faults of combinational circuits has been built. The performance estimation results for the software package developed for the ISCAS '85 benchmark circuits demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms and methods used.
The temperature range of SPICE models of bipolar and field-effect transistors is extended from the standard commercial level (-60...+150 °C) to harsh conditions level (-200...+300 °C) for low/high temperature ICs design. This is done by including additional equations for temperaturedependent parameters, and by connecting additional elements to the device equivalent circuit to take into account the thermal effects. The universal automated methodology of model parameters extraction from the experimental data measured at low and high temperatures is proposed. The good agreement between simulated and measured device characteristics is achieved. The RMS error is not more than 10–20%.
The corrections of the methodology of power BJT and MOSFET transistor models parameter extraction taking into account the self heating effects are presented. For BJT these corrections are included into VBIC model parameter extraction process. For MOSFET current generator connected to standard SPICE MOS model is proposed to take into account drain current growth with transistor temperature.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.