Psychologically inspired planning method for smart relocation task
Behavior planning is known to be one of the basic cognitive functions, which is essential for any cognitive architecture of any control system used in robotics. At the same time most of the widespread planning algorithms employed in those systems are developed using only approaches and models of Artificial Intelligence and don’t take into account numerous results of cognitive experiments. As a result, there is a strong need for novel methods of behavior planning suitable for modern cognitive architectures aimed at robot control. One such method is presented in this work and is studied within a special class of navigation task called smart relocation task. The method is based on the hierarchical two-level model of abstraction and knowledge representation, e.g. symbolic and subsymbolic. On the symbolic level sign world model is used for knowledge representation and hierarchical planning algorithm, MAP, is utilized for planning. On the subsymbolic level the task of path planning is considered and solved as a graph search problem. Interaction between both planners is examined and inter-level interfaces and feedback loops are described. Preliminary experimental results are presented.
In this paper we outline the approach of solving special type of navigation tasks for robotic systems, when a coalition of robots (agents) acts in the 2D environment, which can be modified by the actions, and share the same goal location. The latter is originally unreachable for some members of the coalition, but the common task still can be accomplished as the agents can assist each other (e.g. by modifying the environment). We call such tasks smart relocation tasks (as the can not be solved by pure path planning methods) and study spatial and behavior interaction of robots while solving them. We use cognitive approach and introduce semiotic knowledge representation — sign world model which underlines behavioral planning methodology. Planning is viewed as a recursive search process in the hierarchical state-space induced by sings with path planning signs reside on the lowest level. Reaching this level triggers path planning which is accomplished by state of the art grid-based planners focused on producing smooth paths (e.g. LIAN) and thus indirectly guarantying feasibility of that paths against agent’s dynamic constraints.
Procedures for forming an element of an actor's world model (sign) introduced in the first part of this study are considered. The process of forming the pair image--sign significance taking into account the modern understanding of the human brain cortex operation is investigated. An algorithm for synthesizing a behavior plan is constructed, and a novel architecture of intelligent agents that are able, among other things, to distribute roles in coalitions is proposed.
The paper considers the task of simultaneous learning and planning actions for moving a cognitive agent in two-dimensional space. Planning is carried out by an agent who uses an anthropic way of knowledge representation that allows him to build transparent and understood planes, which is especially important in case of human-machine interaction. Learning actions to manipulate objects is carried out through reinforcement learning and demonstrates the possibilities of replenishing the agent’s procedural knowledge. The presented approach was demonstrated in an experiment in the Gazebo simulation environment.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.