Foreign technology transfer: An assessment of Russia's economic dependence on high-tech imports
The article examines Russia’s dependence on hightech imported goods. We improve the OECD hightechnology product classification by increasing the level of disaggregation, accounting for new goods, ensuring comparability over time, and differentiating goods by technological level on quite high levels of disaggregation. We describe the major trends in the world market for high-tech goods and identify the leading countries in each sector (most frequently, China, Germany, Republic of Korea, Switzerland, and Singapore) primarily by calculating net exports of high-tech goods in these sectors. We also assess Russian competitive positions in the global market for high-tech goods by sectors, applying the newly developed competitiveness index, and measure Russian dependence on high-tech goods imported from countries that recently imposed sanctions against Russia. We show that Russia’s economy is highly dependent on imports of pharmaceutical goods and medical equipment, machinery and equipment (except nuclear reactors, fuel elements, engines and turbines), and electrical equipment. The sectors with most imports originating from ‘sanctionimposing’ countries are aircraft, medical and optical equipment, engines and turbines, and pharmaceutical goods. Computers and electronic equipment are at the opposite pole: in these sectors, China is the world leader and the key partner for Russia.
Public diplomacy has become one of the efficient and popular instruments of non-traditional diplomatic activity of states. Its potential of sincere dialogue among civil society representatives and creative format help states and society to promote foreign policy and explain the logic of external actions of some particular country in a non-ordinary and semi-formal way. Today it is also a strong component of global ‘soft power’ competition between influential states.
Among key problems of strategic development of the Russian Federation – a gain of the advanced positions in a global competition, an exit on standards of a life of the developed countries. Methods of achievement of the proclaimed priorities among which predominate an emphasis on realisation of innovations and optimisation of use of regional and human potentials are defined also. It means also working out of essentially new domestic industrial policy which main objective – stimulation of transition of a national economy on the way of development allowing a science and hi-tech sectors of the industry to become by the locomotive of economic growth, to provide adequate conditions for development for industrial sector of economy. Many questions concerning a theme of research carried out in the given collection, successfully dare in the European countries. Therefore studying a positive European experience important for decrease in vulnerability of domestic economy in the face of many global problems. These problems demand today adequate reactions at level of an industrial policy, start of new industrial strategy. In this work it is a lot of the specific proposals directed on the further development of the Russian industry. Authors have formulated both new tactical and strategic ideas, not ordinary decisions for achievement of leadership in the field in the future.
The objective of this paper is to analyse the scope for improving empirical and methodological foundation of global value chains (GVCs) research and for making relevant political decisions, primarily through application of foresight methodology. The authors review major trends of global value chains’ development, specific features of Russia’s participation in them, and the necessary steps to increase the quality and efficiency of this participation, in particular in the changing geopolitical context. Special attention was paid to theoretical, methodological, and empirical aspects of GVC research which are far from being adequate (primarily we mean international databases such as TiVA and WIOD developed with participation of the OECD and the WTO): they need to be supplemented with advanced tools to improve their forecasting potential, and practical and strategic orientation. To this end, approaches which would make it possible to research interconnection between global processes and trends with regional and national innovation-based development tendencies become of crucial importance. Application of foresight methodology may significantly contribute to researching the GVC phenomenon, being a major logical step towards creating advanced research and policy tools to mobilise available resources and coordinate stakeholders’ actions to increase global competitiveness. The paper presents a number of case studies which describe practical application of foresight methodology to analyse Russian participation in various GVCs, by the examples of specific product and service group. The authors conclude that both full-scale foresight studies and specific components thereof could be applied for the purposes of GVC analysis, strategic planning and making political decisions.
In the era marked by globalization and its profound impacts on individuals, societies, states and markets, world-class universities need to position themselves in the forefront of seeking conceptual and practical solutions to daunting challenges by paying greater attention to their roles in serving local society and contributing to global common goods. World-Class Universities: Towards a Global Common Good and Seeking National and Institutional Contributions provides updated insights and debates on how world-class universities will contribute to the global common good and balance their global, national and local roles in doing so.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.