Связанные с событиями потенциалы мозга при восприятии референциально неоднозначных местоимений в русском языке
The study is based on the analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs) accompanying processing referentially ambiguous pronouns under condition when disambiguation is necessary for effective task performance. Participants were asked to match the pronoun in the second sentence with its antecedent (the noun phrase it is related to) in the first sentence in two conditions: experimental (two possible antecedents) and control (only one possible antecedent). Processing referentially ambiguous pronouns as compared to the control condition elicited an Nref effect – a diffuse ERP deflection 300–400 ms poststimulus that was earlier observed in Dutch and Chinese. Moreover, in contrast to previous results, no P600 effect – late positivity associated with acceptability judgment under condition of referential ambiguity – was found. Our data in comparison with results of previous studies indicate that strategies in processing referentially ambiguous pronouns (acceptability judgment) are determined not only by experimental task but also by absence/presence of anomalous trials in the experimental materials.
Time reference in Indo-European languages is marked on the verb. With tensed verb forms, the speaker can refer to the past (wrote, has written), present (writes, is writing) or future (will write). Reference to the past through verb morphology has been shown to be particularly vulnerable in agrammatic aphasia (Bastiaanse, 2008; Yarbay Duman & Bastiaanse, 2009) and both agrammatic and non-brain-damaged individuals have longer RTs with verb forms referring to the past than with verb forms referring to the present (Faroqi-Shah & Dickey, 2009). It has been argued that these results are due to the discourse-linking nature of past tense (Bastiaanse et al., in press). This article reports ERP and behavioral (reaction time and acceptability rating) data on the processing of time reference violations in which verb forms do not match a time frame previously set by an adverb (present adverb – past tense verb; past adverb – present tense verb). The results show that violation by a present tense verb yields a P600 time-locked to the verb. No such response is found for violation by a past tense verb. These ERP results are similar to ERP findings on locally bound and discourse-linked pronominal processing and when related to behavioral findings on identical violations, support the claim that in present tense processing co-reference is established with the speech time (local binding), while past tense processing involves co-reference with some other event time (discourse-linking).
PRE-CogSci 2013 is a follow-up to two successful earlier workshops on the production of referring expressions. The first, PRE-CogSci 2009, focussed on the interplay between computational and empirical methods, organised as part of the 31st CogSci conference in Amsterdam. The second, PRE-CogSci 2011 in Boston, broadened this theme to include work on dialogue and linguistic theory. We explore new directions for computational and cognitive work (e.g., collaborative reference, nondeterminism in production, interaction between comprehension and production, combinations with research on vision).
Despite the fact that widely used temperament questionnaires (for example, Eyesenck's EPI, Strelau's Pavlovian temperament survey) are based on different theoretical approaches, their dimensions are usually interrelated in a strict way, i.e. their scales correlate with each other in a regular manner (Rusalov 1990, Strelau 2009). But this is not always the case, and for some subjects dataobtained by different questionnaires give discordant results (Ramendik, 2010, 2008). The nature of this irregularity is unclear, and the aim of the present study was to investigate the electroencephalographic correlates of such discordance.
The choice of an appropriate referential expression (definite description, proper name or pronoun) depends on multiple factors. This paper focuses on how the possessor position of a referential expression and its antecedent affect referential choice. Other factors, such as syntactical role, form and definiteness of the antecedent, and animacy of the referent are considered. The study is based on a subcorpus of the specially designed RefRhet corpus.
We investigated the effect of mobile phone use on the auditory sensory memory in children. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs), P1, N2, mismatch negativity (MMN), and P3a, were recorded from 17 children, aged 11–12 years, in the recently developed multi-feature paradigm. This paradigm allows one to determine the neural change-detection profile consisting of several different types of acoustic changes. During the recording, an ordinary GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) mobile phone emitting 902 MHz (pulsed at 217 Hz) electromagnetic field (EMF) was placed on the ear, over the left or right temporal area (SAR1g = 1.14 W/kg, SAR10g = 0.82 W/kg, peak value = 1.21 W/kg). The EMF was either on or off in a single-blind manner. We found that a short exposure (two 6 min blocks for each side) to mobile phone EMF has no statistically significant effects on the neural change-detection profile measured with the MMN. Furthermore, the multi-feature paradigm was shown to be well suited for studies of perception accuracy and sensory memory in children. However, it should be noted that the present study only had sufficient statistical power to detect a large effect size.
A unique feature of human communication system is our ability to rapidly acquire new words and build large vocabularies. However, its neurobiological foundations remain largely unknown. In an electrophysiological study optimally designed to probe this rapid formation of new word memory circuits, we employed acoustically controlled novel word-forms incorporating native and non-native speech sounds, while manipulating the subjects' attention on the input. We found a robust index of neurolexical memory-trace formation: a rapid enhancement of the brain's activation elicited by novel words during a short (~ 30 min) perceptual exposure, underpinned by fronto-temporal cortical networks, and, importantly, correlated with behavioural learning outcomes. Crucially, this neural memory trace build-up took place regardless of focused attention on the input or any pre-existing or learnt semantics. Furthermore, it was found only for stimuli with native-language phonology, but not for acoustically closely matching non-native words. These findings demonstrate a specialised cortical mechanism for rapid, automatic and phonology-dependent formation of neural word memory circuits. © 2015.
The book describes theinterdependent relations between the multilingualism and literary creativity.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.