Понятие и феномен сопротивления обучению
The general concept of resistance is analyzed in the article, the views of several researchers on the nature of resistance in a trained group are put under consideration, some behavioral signs of resisting among the students are highlighted, the forms and varieties of resistance are described and there is an attempt to formulate a definition of resistance to training.
The article is devoted to a problem of resistance to organizational changes. An objective of this research is to detect interdependence between personal characteristics of organizational change projects participants, psychological readiness of staff of the divisions involved in the project of organizational transformations, ways of conflict permission and efficiency of the realized projects. The results have practical value for increase of organizational change projects implementation success, and also similar projects with high degree of uncertainty, or the projects demanding an intellectual human resource for the solution of cognitive tasks
This article is devoted to a problem of resistance to organizational changes in projects in general and its socio-psychological aspect in particular. During the literary review the points of view on interrelation of project management and organizational change management are revealed, types and models of organizational changes introduction are allocated. Besides, the review includes the works devoted to socio-psychological aspect of change management, and the conflicts as to a consequence of these changes, and their influence on project success.
The article discusses conducted study, the purpose of which was the development of science-based systematization of factors for resistance to organizational changes of the personnel and its approbation. The basis of the developing this idea is that the resistance to organizational changes is a form of organizational behavior and should be studied on three levels: individual, group and organizational one. On the ground of literature review the main (enlarged) factors of resistance in each level were identified and we developed a questionnaire where all factors are measured on a 7-point scale. The survey involved 336 line managers in the companies of Nizhny Novgorod that represents different spheres of the economy. Submitted data shows that priority guidelines of organizational changes in the Russian companies are technology and human resource management. It was revealed that the resistance to organizational changes of the staff has an average intensity and passive form; however the most intense cause of resistance to changes is human resource management. Also we found that the greatest influence on the resistance of the staff shows: at the individual level - the inertia and fear of negative consequences and at the group level - group norms and cohesiveness. According to the results of the factor analysis a conceptual model of resistance to organizational changes was suggested where psychological causes and organizational conditions are different. Designed systematization can be taken as the basis for differential diagnosis of the psychological causes and organizational conditions of resistance to change. The usefulness of the diagnosis was approved: individual psychological reasons should be studied by quiz of the employees with digital scaling for each cause; socio-psychological reasons - by the survey, supplemented by formal interviews with line managers and group discussions; organizational conditions - by method of group peer review and interviews with top managers of the company, including HR-managers.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.