Особенности организации статистического наблюдения инновационной деятельности малых и средних предприятий в России и за рубежом
The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship of innovation potential and its main components with the level of small and medium-sized enterprises development in Russian regions. Based on international and Russian experience the regional innovation potential was evaluated using the multilevel approach. It includes the calculation of the partial sub-indices reflecting the innovation potential components in the regions (resources, infrastructure and effectiveness of innovation) as well as the composite index evaluation based on them. Principal components analysis of the variables characterizing small and medium-sized enterprises density in a region and these enterprises contribution to regional employment allows obtaining generalized characteristic of the level of small and medium-sized enterprises development. By the values of resource and effectiveness components of the innovation potential the typological groups of Russian regions were highlighted. The analysis reveals a significant moderate positive relationship between the level of small and medium-sized enterprises development (in particular, the groups of micro and small enterprises, medium-sized enterprises) and the composite index of innovative potential as well as sub-indices characterizing its components. For medium-sized enterprises this relationship with the resource and effectiveness components is higher because medium-sized enterprises are more involved in innovation activities. Currently, the contribution of small enterprises to innovative development of Russian regions is negligible, so the level of small entrepreneurship development depends mostly on regional infrastructure than on other aspects of innovation. Finally, practical recommendations were developed to stimulate entrepreneurial activity taking into account regional specificities.
Licensing is one of the main administrative tools used for state regulation of the economy. It can serve as a fairly accurate «barometer» of the administrative burden, which the government provides the business with.
This article analyzes the licensing of certain types of economic activities in the context of the whole system of administrative regimes of the economy. The authors conclude that the legal acts regulating the licensing can be a model for the regulation of other administrative regimes.
Special attention is paid to the history of transformation of the licensing system for the past 20 years, including the period of the administrative reform. The paper assesses the effectiveness of the measures taken in the framework of the reform. The authors concluded that, despite some deregulation, in many cases replacing licensing in other administrative regimes has maintained or even increased the amount of administrative pressure.
The authors examined in detail the innovations of the Federal Law of May 4, 2011 N 99- FZ «On Licensing Certain Types of Activities», highlighting its advantages and disadvantages. The main advantages of the law are the reduction of the list of licensed activities, the introduction of perpetual licenses, the use of information technology in the licensing procedures. The main disadvantage of the law is increase in terms of administrative procedures for licensing.
In 2012 the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia has created an information system for collecting data on the licensing of certain types of economic activity. The paper contains an analysis of the statistical data obtained by using this system. It allows us to assess the extent and pattern of functioning of the institution of licensing.
The article also provides an analysis of some current problems of licensing: the restriction of places of the licensed activity; the consolidation of licensed activities; the uncertainty of the forms and methods of verifying compliance with the licensing requirements; the lack of communication between the licensing bodies and the tax authorities. According to the analysis of these problems, the authors formulate proposals to improve the licensing system.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.