Мета-анализы и оценка их методологического качества. Русскоязычная версия вопросника AMSTAR
Meta-analysis is often considered as the highest level evidence on the effectiveness and safety of drugs and other medical technologies; however, the methodological quality of meta-analyses and systematic reviews varies considerably, which leads to the differences of effect values and the levels of evidence of the results. In 2007, validated tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews AMSTAR has been developed. It is based on the combination of many elements of the previous evaluation systems. We have translated AMSTAR into Russian and made some extra explanation. The current publication presents the Russian-language version of the questionnaire. We believe that the Russian version of AMSTAR questionnaire can be used for a more objective assessment of the evidence of medical technology.
The concept and aim of evidence-based entrepreneurship (EBE) is discussed as a strategy to overcome the divide between knowledge developed in the field of entrepreneurship and its use in practice. We argue that meta-analyses can and should be used in entrepreneurship research (and that it should also be used for qualitative work).
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The paper uses meta-analysis to investigate the evolution of returns to education in Russia during the economic transition. We present the evidence of strong increase in returns to education in the 1990s. The returns to education peaked at 8% per additional year of schooling in the early 2000s. Since the mid-2000s the positive trend has been reversed. We find that the estimated returns are sensitive to sample design, specification and estimation methods. On average the estimated returns are higher if one uses imputed (instead of actual) years of education and estimates earnings equation with the OLS. Among covariates, the form of ownership and settlement type (urban/ rural) has the largest effect on the estimated returns to education. Regional variables have significant impact on the estimated returns only being included into the earnings equation at the oblast (province) level.
EMI (English as the Medium of Instruction) has led NRU HSE to implement the use of English in teaching different subjects. It takes into account the institution`s language policy and the programs which offer subjects in English, as well as the needs and benefits of the teachers and students. The use of English is increasing in tertiary education. The concept of teaching content in another language, other than that of the students’, has existed since the past century. But its study has not showed how to progress in these subjects. So, it was necessary to collect qualitative and quantitative data by means of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaire data and feedback from students taking such classes at NRU HSE shed light on problems involved with EMI classes. The findings of this needs analysis that was carried out in this paper can help to create an action plan that will include training schemes to foster internationalization. The report concludes with practical recommendations for language support activity and improved English language abilities.
Abstract The paper presents a meta-analysis of open-label antihypertensive effectiveness studies of indapamide SR (Arifon Retard, Servier Laboratories, France) in hypertensives. 24 Russian (n = 4952) and 4 foreign (n = 4634) studies were included in analysis. Russian studies show that indapamide retard both as a monotherapy and a component of the combination therapy leads to a 17,8/14,0 % decrease of systolic/diastolic blood pressure that is a reduction for 29.2 (95 % CI 28,9–29,5)/12,3 (12,1–12,5) mmHg in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Baseline blood pressure was the main predictor of its reduction, and the most signifi cant reduction for 32,6 (95 % CI 25,5–39,6) mmHg was seen when the average baseline systolic blood pressure exceeded 170 mmHg. Antihypertensive effi cacy of indapamide retard was similar in Russian and foreign studies. However, incidence of therapy-related side effects was higher in Russian studies than in foreign ones (5,9 and 3,3 % respectively, p < 0,001). Therefore, meta-analysis based on the data of open Russian studies confi rms the antihypertensive effectiveness of indapamide retard and demonstrates the comparability of the results to those found in multicenter foreign studies.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.