This article examines the unique for Polish numismatics case of minting the siege coins (second after besieging Gdansk by the army of Stephen Báthory in 1577). The author briefly reviews the circumstances, under which took place the siege of the Zamość Fortress in 1813, during the period of Napoleonic Wars, namely the retreat of the Great Army of Napoleon and advance of the Russian Empire army (foreign crusades). Under the conditions when all the cash money were spent for the needs of defenders of the fortress, the commander of the defending fortress M. Hauge made a decision on the emission of private coin. This work is based on in the materials on history and numismatics, examples of the coins, as well as Polish, American, and Russian sources. Despite all of the efforts to eliminate, the coins of Zamość Fortress held its place in the body of coins and medals of the period of Napoleonic Wars, and became an important national heritage and patriotic symbol, memory for the future generations about the heroic defense. The coins minted during the siege of Zamość Fortress in 1813 are the second (after the siege of Gdansk in 1577) and the last case of the siege coins in Polish numismatic, which is especially interesting for the research.
Russia’s ambitions under Emperor Alexander I to establish a new political order in Europe in 1813–1815 have been widely discussed by historians. Assessments of this new order itself, as it was finally implemented in the wake of the Congress of Vienna, vary markedly, but it is generally believed that the post-war system was the fruit of interactions between several participants who represented Europe’s old regimes in an age of revolution. The Holy Alliance as a vision of international order is often presented to be diametrically opposed to the more radical, republican imagining of global order such as that associated with Immanuel Kant’s Perpetual Peace. This chapter shakes up this view by analysing the importance of Kant’s ideas in the intellectual formation of one of the most influential Russian imperial political thinkers of this period, Sergey Uvarov. The degree of indebtedness to Kant’s work in his vision of international order, though it ultimately conflicts with the spirit of Kant’s work, was strongest in the period of Franco–Russian conflict.