К созданию частотного словаря значений слов
Analyzing several Russian nouns denoting everyday life objects, we explain why a word sense frequency dictionary is necessary. Techniques of calculating the approximate frequencies are proposed, based on the analysis of native speaker surveys and the annotation of the most frequent collocations in a large text corpus (we used the huge RuTenTen11 corpus integrated into the Sketch Engine system). A word sense dictionary could be used in a variety of NLP tasks, in particular for a probabilistic word sense disambiguation without available context, in creating second language learning resources, as well as in academic lexicography. Besides, studies of sense sets of polysemous words and their comparative frequencies are important for the linguistic theory, because they shed light on the evolution of the lexical system.
The article presents the history of the Longman dictionary that has become a bestseller all over the world. Revealing the translation of the lexicographic idea into practice, the author tells us about the scholarly disputes that accompanied the development of the principles of a new type of English dictionary.
This paper sets out to review current approaches to world Englishes from a range of perspectives, from English studies to sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, lexicography, ‘popularizers’ and critical linguistics. It then proceeds to consider current debates on English worldwide and world Englishes, noting the recent criticisms of the world Englishes approach from a rhetoric of a critical linguistics ironically at odds with the realities of many educational settings.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.