УПРАВЛЯЯ ПРОСТРАНСТВОМ: ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ СПАСО-ПРИЛУЦКИМ МОНАСТЫРЕМ ВОДНЫХ КОММУНИКАЦИЙ И ИХ СТРУКТУРА (XVI–XVII ВВ.)
The strengthening of governmental structures and an increase in economic activity between the 16th and the 18th centuries in Russia contributed to the formation of a system of roads and waterways. Water transport has some advantages over moving goods by land. The capacity of river and coastal vessels was greater than horse-drawn transports, which meant that the former was less costly. Certain topographical features, varied hydrological conditions in rivers, and diverse weather conditions required a flexible system of waterways as a means of communication. In a preindustrial landscape, the transport network was a compromise between the needs of the individual and the problems imposed by natural factors. The effectiveness of transportation systems depended on organisational and economic factors:governmental structures and communities could obviously provide a greater level of organisation than individuals. One of such communities was the monastery: the Spaso–Prilutsky monastery was a considerable force in the organisation of trade in Northern Russia. On the basis of materials from this institution, the author examines the ways in which natural phenomena shaped the monastery’s transportation network and how the monastery maintained and developed this network.
This study is devoted to the origins of the Muscowy Crwon regalia on a likeness of Zygmunt III Vasa made by an unknown artist after his death; among the attributes which accompany the dead king: - who is lying recumbent on a Bed of State - the "crwon brought from Moscow", placed on the ruler's head, is of special significance.
The article uses the prosopographical method to examine the history of Muslim and newly-baptised Tatars in Novgorod after 1550. 418 biographies were studied. The main sources were documents from the Razryad (service lists) and Pomestny Prikaz (land chancellery): local Novgorod court records also furnished further information. The history of the Novgorod Tartars began in the 1550s, when groups from Astrakhan and Kazan were settled in the eastern part of Novgorod region (Sugletsa and Udomlya districts). As they served the tsar, they received landed estates in Novgorod that were populated with Orthodox peasants. Between 1550 and 1611, different Muslim groups were transferred to Novgorod from Azov, the Crimea, and Bukhara; these groups maintained special identities for a long time. The conversion of Muslims to Orthodoxy is focused upon in this article: the process was slow, but the predominance of Orthodoxy in the region gradually induced local Tartar groups to accept baptism. In 1605, there were 197 newly-baptised Tartars and 48 Muslims. After the Time of Troubles, the differences between the various groups of Tartars disappeared. Most of the Tartars lost their landed estates and started to serve for food and salary; nonetheless, this special group of Novgorodian servicemen continued to exist until the Great Northern War.
The article discusses two major trends in contemporary world politics—the disintegration of the nation-state and supranational integration—and analyses their nature, causes and significance. The author concludes that these processes have a different character within and outside Europe and that the multidirectional trends in different parts of the world, on the one hand, complicate Russia’s foreign policy-making and implementation, but, on the other, widen Russia’s room for diplomatic manoeuvring and increase the opportunities to exploit the contradictions between old and new actors in international relations.
The abduction of women is closely connected with traditional or primitive societies. Anthropologists tie it with alternative marriage arrangements, characteristic of those systems where marriages are arranged by parents; historians tend to view the abduction of women as part of early history of developed nations, mostly the Middle Ages. In Russia, recent historiographical discussion of abductions always starts with descriptions of customary practices in Siberia to highlight the steppe and frontier experiences in the framework of colonization and underline ‘savage’ or ‘backwardness’ of Siberian populations. However, scholars almost never talk about the abduction of women within the European part. In this article, female abductions are analyzed within the framework of citizenship and modernization of the Russian Empire in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It focuses on the notion of consent and how it contributed to the founding of a new social unit, that is the family, in which women and men acquired their rights and duties in relation to outside society and wider polity. The lack of consent jeopardized the legitimacy of such a union and compromized the citizenship status of its members. On its way to build the country as a modern empire, Russian authorities localized the abduction of women as a ‘customary’ practice of ‘backwards’ people to preserve the modern European core of the Empire.
Falconry – its influence on biodiversity and cultural heritage in Poland and across Europe
The article considers economic documentation Vychegodskiy fishing Spaso-Prilutsky monastery in the period of Salt reform 1646. On the basis of codicological analysis have been identified and are shown the peculiarities of accounting in prihoda-account books of fishing the day before and the years of reform. The connection between changes in these practices and the situation in the fisheries resulting from activities related to the reform.
In this paper the authors consider three cases of monastic water management that conformed to specitic spatial configurations necessary for monastic life and an ideal Christian existance. The goal is to study constructed religious environments, or the cretaion of particular religious spaces.The chapter argues that there was an interconnectedness between the spirit of the monastic enterprise and the high quality (meaning both aesthetic beauty and good conditions of life) of the environment surrounding and accommodating the monasteries of Russia. In this perspective, the canals and dykes constructed by the monks must be considered as part of their religious system, inspired by an intention to construct a certain religious landscape, rather than as purely economic or household activities.