Глобальные цепочки стоимости и вопросы торговой политики
Taking price changes from the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model of world trade, the authors use a small open economy computable general equilibrium comparative static model of the Russian economy to assess the impact of global free trade and a successful completion of the Doha Agenda on the Russian economy, and especially on the poor. They compare those results with the impact of Russian accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on income distribution and the poor. The model incorporates all 55,000 households from the Russian Household Budget Survey as real households. Crucially, given the importance of foreign direct investment (FDI) liberalization as part of Russian WTO accession, the authors also include FDI and Dixit-Stiglitz endogenous productivity effects from liberalization of import barriers against goods and FDI in services. The authors estimate that Russian WTO accession in the medium run will result in gains averaged over all Russian households equal to 7.3 percent of Russian consumption (with a standard deviation of 2.2 percent of consumption), with virtually all households gaining. They find that global free trade would result in a weighted average gain to households in Russia of 0.2 percent of consumption, with a standard deviation of 0.2 percent of consumption, while a successful completion of the Doha Development Agenda would result in a weighted average gain to households of -0.3 percent of consumption (with a standard deviation of 0.2 percent of consumption). Russia, as a net food importer, loses from subsidy elimination, and the gains to Russia from tariff cuts in other countries are too small to offset these losses. The results strongly support the view that Russia's own liberalization is more important than improvements in market access as a result of reforms in tariffs or subsidies in the rest of the world. Foremost among the own reforms is liberalization of barriers against FDI in business services.
This collection of papers is a combined initiative of EPF member think tanks and is the result of two round-table discussions under the Regional Integration research stream. The first event, ‘Drivers of Regional Integration’, took place in Cape Town, 25-27 November 2014; the second, ‘Regional Integration and Regional Value Chains’ was held in Moscow, 21 May 2015.
The article performs a comparative analysis of the efficiency of G20, BRICS and NIC member countries’ participation in global value chains (GVC) taking into account economic growth, investment activity, global competitiveness and productivity in the period from 2000 to 2009. Efficiency is evaluated by means of the method of data envelopment analysis under constant and variable returns of scale assumptions. The comparison of the efficiency of developed and developing countries participation in GVCs is made, the leaders and outsiders in using the GVCs’ potential are revealed. For the latter the target values of the input and output parameters allowing to reach the efficiency frontier are indicated.
This publication was prepared for the anniversary of the head of the Department of International and European Law, Doctor of Law, Professor Pavel Biriukov. It contains the materials of the international scientific practical conference “Modern international law: globalization and integration”, held on September 9, 2016 at the Voronezh State University. Authors (lawyers from Russia and foreign countries, colleagues, friends and scholars of P. Biriukov) highlight the problems of modern international law in the light of trends in the universalization and regionalization. All materials are published with a strict compliance with the original files presented by its authors. This publication is addressed to teachers and students of law schools and faculties.