Строгого определения, какие изменения следует считать языковой реформой, а какие — нет, не существует
The article deals with the current tendency towards an increase in Russian speakers’ verbalized metalinguistic reflection on language and culture contact, generated by growing exposure to global English and the influx of Anglicisms. Of crucial importance to cross-cultural research are metalinguistic commentaries, in which lay speakers register their negative attitude to those borrowings from English which reflect cultural norms and values clashing with the system of traditional Russian cultural norms and values. This is defined as a "linguacultural clash" or "linguacultural conflict"; its negatively marked metalinguistic interpretation is seen as part of speakers' "linguistic self-defense".
Language contacts have been extensively studied linguistically and sociolinguistically. This paper argues that cross-cultural analysis of language transfer can also prove useful in contact linguistics. One of the latest borrowings from English into Russian, the semantic calque vyzov vyzovy (‘challenge/challenges’) used often in the cliche´ ugrozy i vyzovy (‘threats and hallenges’), makes certain shifts in the Russian world view traceable. Challenge, a key word in English, is untranslatable into Russian and the trite Russian translation equivalent for challenge – problema (‘problem’) reveals important differences between the two cultures: the Anglophone (especially, American) linguaculture, whose dominant values are individual success and activity, competitiveness, positive thinking, sense of adventure, etc., perceives difficulties as ‘‘stimuli’’ and conceptualizes them in terms of challenges; contrary to this, the Russian linguaculture, which is, if compared with the Western cultures, ‘‘being-oriented,’’ ‘‘relationship-oriented,’’ ‘passive’’ and ‘‘pessimistic,’’ encourages the discussion of difficulties in terms of problems. The borrowing of the concept challenge by extending the meaning of vyzov registers a shift of the Russian value system in the direction of increased agentivity, assertiveness, positivism, competitiveness, etc. Such borrowings are ‘‘challenges’’ rather than ‘‘threats’’ to the Russian language and culture and they call for a more in-depth linguacultural analysis of English–Russian interactions.
This collection includes articles of the participants of the International conference “Language policy and language conflicts in contemporary world”, organized by the Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences from 16–19 September, 2014 in Moscow with financial support of the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation. The Conference became one of important scientific events of the Research Center on ethnic and language relations of the Institute of linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The problems touched upon by the authors include a wide range of questions which are bound up with language and society interaction, functioning of ethnic languages in modern conditions, analyses of concrete language situations, language policy, language legislation and language conflicts in Russia and other countries.
Variation and variety, basic linguistic notions elaborated, among many others, in Prof. Schweitzer’s works, are addressed in the article in the context of an increase in variation in modern Russian under the influence of global English. The increase in contact-induced variation is investigated in connection with the following: 1) an increase in borrowings and semantic calques from English into Russian, 2) an increase in Russian-English code-switching and code-mixing, and 3) major changes in Russian-English interaction contributing to the change of status of English in Russia and the initiation of a specific regional variety of English, Russia(n) English.
The article covers different variants of language interaction in the modern world – from code-switching to borrowings – resulting from the language contacts (bilingual and multilingual) and reflecting sociocultural changes during the globalization period. Forms and mechanisms for interaction of the Russian and German languages and the formation of sociocultural identity in a multicultural society are analyzed through the example of sociolinguistic situation of the Russian speaking diaspora in Germany.
The author considers new tendencies in national languages development during globalization epoch, reveals the connection between socio-cultural and socio-linguistic changes and swift distribution of modern information technologies and pays special attention to the necessity of taking measures on languages protection from the destructive factors accompanying globalization process with the purpose of language variety preservation in the world and guaranteeing nations cultural traditions continuity.
The paper aims to show that globalization of English does not imply its mere passive consumption by local languages and cultures. Global English often functions as an important “other” in interaction with which local cultural identities are refashioned and maintained. Several recent English-Russian borrowings are analyzed to vindicate this idea.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.