Agricultural Exports, Tariffs and Growth
This article presents a Ricardian model of trade with learning-by-doing to study the effect of barriers to trade in products with low growth potential on the long-run economic growth. The model shows that, when elasticity of demand for the product with a lower learning potential is lower than unitary, a reduction in the tariff imposed on this product, may shift the demand toward the product with a higher learning potential, thus enhancing economic growth in the exporter economy. Therefore, the current trend of reduction in tariffs on agricultural exports not only generates a positive welfare effect in the short run, but may similarly be beneficial for developing economies in the long run, since it also increases their incentive to develop sectors with higher growth potential
Trade restrictions on the way to “green” economy: a survival tool or a new protectionism The article considered the new risks of controls in national and international trade that affect the conditions of access of goods to national markets and the development of protectionism. The authors argue that the international community developed mechanisms to protect the environment need to be improved in the direction of a more “sophisticated” regulation, providing flexibility and the redistribution of resources, as well as taking into account new forms of organization of production and trade, provided consistency with existing principles of multilateral trade regulation.
This article assesses the level of openness of Russian economy. It is shown that the open-ness indicators used in the Concept of Long-term Social and Economic Development of the Russian Federation differ from those employed by international organisations. The present research analyses both the intensity of Russian trade in terms of its gross domestic product and the relative strength of import penetration in Russia. Methodological differences determine the differences in the analysis results.
This study analyzes the effects of reducing trade barriers in the context of the objectives of competition policy. Separate chapters are devoted to the assessment of the height of Russian trade barriers, the analysis of the impact of international trade on domestic prices and concentration of production.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.