Practices of Islamic State (ISIS) in the Context of Islamic Eschatology
The History has shown once again, that one cannot fight something that one does not understand. In modern warfare both the military and the ideological fronts are at the same level of intensity, as the victory always depends not only on battlefield triumphs, but also on enlisting new adherents and holding to the old ones. And after two years of heroic fight of the “Obama Alliance” against IS in Syria and Iraq there is a clear indication, that Caliph Ibrahim (Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi) is winning on both fronts. The main goal of this article is an attempt to explain reasons underlying the success of ISIS leadership, that allowed the Islamists not only to evade the “degrade and destroy” strategy of the coalition, but also to build a new state, in the light of the context of Islamic eschatological concepts. To reach this goal, we strive to not only understand the perspectives of this newlyfounded state and possible forecasts for its sustainability, but also to look into the reasons of IS attractiveness for large groups of people from a variety of countries and regions, through the lens of Islamic eschatology.
The book enters into a circle of the problems connected with crisis of modern European culture. Relying on experience of the Russian philosophy of the Silver age (V. Solovyov, L. Shestov, S. Frank, N. Berdyaev, P. Florensky), the author investigates the reasons of spiritual and cultural shocks of our time. He sees manifestations of the radical antinomies of the European spirit penetrating all spheres in external signs of crisis, - from daily occurrence to the bases of modern science.
The article touches approach of the modern Islamic legal thought to the Islamic state and caliphate. The author explains the fundamental principles if Islamic concept of the power (caliphate) and points out that this concept was gradually deviating from real political practice. The caliphate itself remained as a political institution till the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after the World War I. After emergence of Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL) the caliphate converted to concrete political project. In June 2014 ISIL which changed its name to become “Islamic State” (IS) declared creation of caliphate. In practice the Shariat implementation in IS comes to mass killings, forcing nonmuslims to adopt Islam, interference into internal life of Muslim states and terror attacks. The modern Islamic legal thought criticizes IS severely stressing on its violence of religious postulates and Shariat provisions.
The Syrian conflict came in 2015 at the foreground for both the US-Russia relations and global political and military-political governance. The fight against the "Islamic State" and other radical Islamist terrorist groups in Syria (above all AlNusra Fornt, which is Al Qaeda's affiliate) and an ability of the international community to joint forces and establish cooperation on this issue, to overcome or mnimize the inter-state impediments against this, is a test fomr global governance with the US and other centers of power, including Russia, participation.
There were two equivalent geniuses in the history of nineteenth centuries thought, the period when all main meanings of Russian mentality were being organized and reflections about possible destiny of Russia in the context of world history were being established. Their names are Konstantin Leontiev and Vladimir Solovyov. The both have their backgrounds in Slavyanofil's ideas, which both thinkers had overcome in their own unique way. Despite the fact, that they have had completely different points of views, Leontiev was fascinated by Solovyov. Solovyov and Leontiev were trying to create their own historiosophical projects, which were destined to change the course of the history. Both philosophers were called utopists, but actually they didn’t think about the utopism of their projects. They had chosen the different ways, but at the end they had come to the same conclusion: the world history is closed to its own end, and the most important thing for every person is to find his own place in the oncoming eschatological crisis.
The volume contains papers by Russian and Italian scholars devoted to the role of Christian texts in the cultural history of mediaval Europe and pre-Petrine Rus. Various aspects of Christian culure are dicussed, such as veneration of saints, eschatological prophecies, ideals of monastic life et al.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.