On mining complex sequential data by means of FCA and pattern structures
Nowadays data-sets are available in very complex and heterogeneous ways. Mining of such data collections is essential to support many real-world applications ranging from healthcare to marketing. In this work, we focus on the analysis of “complex” sequential data by means of interesting sequential patterns. We approach the problem using the elegant mathematical framework of formal concept analysis and its extension based on “pattern structures”. Pattern structures are used for mining complex data (such as sequences or graphs) and are based on a subsumption operation, which in our case is defined with respect to the partial order on sequences. We show how pattern structures along with projections (i.e. a data reduction of sequential structures) are able to enumerate more meaningful patterns and increase the computing efficiency of the approach. Finally, we show the applicability of the presented method for discovering and analysing interesting patient patterns from a French healthcare data-set on cancer. The quantitative and qualitative results (with annotations and analysis from a physician) are reported in this use-case which is the main motivation for this work.
A scalable method for mining graph patterns stable under subsampling is proposed. The existing subsample stability and robustness measures are not antimonotonic according to definitions known so far. We study a broader notion of antimonotonicity for graph patterns, so that measures of subsample stability become antimonotonic. Then we propose gSOFIA for mining the most subsample-stable graph patterns. The experiments on numerous graph datasets show that gSOFIA is very efficient for discovering subsample-stable graph patterns.
This paper addresses the important problem of efficiently mining numerical data with formal concept analysis (FCA). Classically, the only way to apply FCA is to binarize the data, thanks to a so-called scaling procedure. This may either involve loss of information, or produce large and dense binary data known as hard to process. In the context of gene expression data analysis, we propose and compare two FCA-based methods for mining numerical data and we show that they are equivalent. The first one relies on a particular scaling, encoding all possible intervals of attribute values, and uses standard FCA techniques. The second one relies on pattern structures without a priori transformation, and is shown to be more computationally efficient and to provide more readable results. Experiments with real-world gene expression data are discussed and give a practical basis for the comparison and evaluation of the methods.
Concept discovery is a Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) research field that uses human-centered techniques such as Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), Biclustering, Triclustering, Conceptual Graphs etc. for gaining insight into the underlying conceptual structure of the data. Traditional machine learning techniques are mainly focusing on structured data whereas most data available resides in unstructured, often textual, form. Compared to traditional data mining techniques, human-centered instruments actively engage the domain expert in the discovery process. This volume contains the contributions to CDUD 2011, the International Workshop on Concept Discovery in Unstructured Data (CDUD) held in Moscow. The main goal of this workshop was to provide a forum for researchers and developers of data mining instruments working on issues with analyzing unstructured data. We are proud that we could welcome 13 valuable contributions to this volume. The majority of the accepted papers described innovative research on data discovery in unstructured texts. Authors worked on issues such as transforming unstructured into structured information by amongst others extracting keywords and opinion words from texts with Natural Language Processing methods. Multiple authors who participated in the workshop used methods from the conceptual structures field including Formal Concept Analysis and Conceptual Graphs. Applications include but are not limited to text mining police reports, sociological definitions, movie reviews, etc.
Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is a mathematically well-founded theory aimed at data analysis and classication, introduced and detailed in the book of Bernhard Ganter and Rudolf Wille, \Formal Concept Analysis", Springer 1999. The area came into being in the early 1980s and has since then spawned over 10000 scientic publications and a variety of practically deployed tools. FCA allows one to build from a data table with objects in rows and attributes in columns a taxonomic data structure called concept lattice, which can be used for many purposes, especially for Knowledge Discovery and Information Retrieval. The \Formal Concept Analysis Meets Information Retrieval" (FCAIR) workshop collocated with the 35th European Conference on Information Retrieval (ECIR 2013) was intended, on the one hand, to attract researchers from FCA community to a broad discussion of FCA-based research on information retrieval, and, on the other hand, to promote ideas, models, and methods of FCA in the community of Information Retrieval. This volume contains 11 contributions to FCAIR workshop (including 3 abstracts for invited talks and tutorial) held in Moscow, on March 24, 2013. All submissions were assessed by at least two reviewers from the program committee of the workshop to which we express our gratitude. We would also like to thank the co-organizers and sponsors of the FCAIR workshop: Russian Foundation for Basic Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, and Yandex.
The way of the automated knowledge control system realization is offered on the basis of such intellectual means as the ontologic approach, fuzzy logic and data mining.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.