Multilayer cognitive architecture for UAV control
Extensive use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in recent years has induced the rapid growth of research areas related to UAV production. Among these, the design of control systems capable of automating a wide range of UAV activities is one of the most actively explored and evolving. Currently, researchers and developers are interested in designing control systems that can be referred to as intelligent, e.g. the systems which are suited to solve such tasks as planning, goal prioritization, coalition formation etc. and thus guarantee high levels of UAV autonomy. One of the principal problems in intelligent control system design is tying together various methods and models traditionally used in robotics and aimed at solving such tasks as dynamics modelling, control signal genera- tion, location and mapping, path planning etc. with the methods of behaviour modelling and planning which are thoroughly studied in cognitive science. Our work is aimed at solving this problem. We propose layered architecture — STRL (strategic, tactical, reactive, layered) — of the control system that au- tomates the behaviour generation using a cognitive approach while taking into account complex dynamics and kinematics of the control object (UAV).We use a special type of knowledge representation — sign world model — that is based on the psychological activity theory to describe individual behaviour planning and coalition formation processes. We also propose path planning methodology which serves as the mediator between the high-level cognitive activities and the reactive control signals generation. To generate these signals we use a state-dependent Riccati equation and specific method for solving it. We believe that utilization of the proposed architecture will broaden the spectrum of tasks which can be solved by the UAV’s coalition automatically, as well as raise the autonomy level of each individual member of that coalition.
Procedures for forming an element of an actor's world model (sign) introduced in the first part of this study are considered. The process of forming the pair image--sign significance taking into account the modern understanding of the human brain cortex operation is investigated. An algorithm for synthesizing a behavior plan is constructed, and a novel architecture of intelligent agents that are able, among other things, to distribute roles in coalitions is proposed.
The technique of modeling of innovative development of the Russian educational complex (REC) in the context of the information society-WA. To identify and explore trends and has a dominant influence on the development of ROCK, simulation and prediction of innovation in the field of education it is advisable to use the pertinent system of economic-mathematical models – system hermaeophaga type and model theory of active systems. Qualitative analysis of innovation processes in information and communication educa-dimensional space (of ICES is proposed), proposed to be carried out by using methods and tools in the theory of self-organization – synergetics. It is noted that energeti-ical model of innovation processes taking place in the ICES is proposed, can be used in intelligent systems of management of innovative development ROCK as a priori models.
The dynamic approach to understanding of the human consciousness, its cognitive activities and cognitive architecture is one of the most promising approaches in the modern epistemology and cognitive science. The conception of embodied mind is under discussion in the light of nonlinear dynamics and of the idea co-evolution of complex systems developed by the Moscow scientific school. The cognitive architecture of the embodied mind is rather complex: data from senses and products of rational thinking, the verbal and the pictorial, logic and intuition, the analytical and synthetic abilities of perception and of thinking, the local and the global, the analogue and the digital, the archaic and the post-modern are intertwined in it. In the process of cognition, co-evolution of embodied mind as an autopoietic system and its surroundings takes place. The perceptual and mental processes are bound up with the structure of human body. Nonlinear and circular connecting links between the subject of cognition and the world constructed by him can be metaphorically called a nonlinear cobweb of cognition. Cognition is an autopoietic activity because it is directed to the search of elements that are missed; it serves to completing integral structures. According to the theory of blow-up regimes in complex systems elaborated by Sergey P.Kudyumov and his followers, the idea of co-evolution is connected with the concept of tempoworlds. To co-evolve means to start to develop in one and the same tempoworld and to use the possibility – in case of a proper intergation into a whole structure – to accelerate the tempo of evolution. The cognitive activities of the human being can be considered as a movement (active walk) in landscapes of co-evolution when he cognizes and changes environment and is changed himself by the very activities. The similar conclusion can be drawn from Francisco Varela’s conception of enactive cognition.
We present two examples of how human-like behavior can be implemented in a model of computer player to improve its characteristics and decision-making patterns in video game. At first, we describe a reinforcement learning model, which helps to choose the best weapon depending on reward values obtained from shooting combat situations. Secondly, we consider an obstacle avoiding path planning adapted to the tactical visibility measure. We describe an implementation of a smoothing path model, which allows the use of penalties (negative rewards) for walking through ``bad'' tactical positions. We also study algorithms of path finding such as improved I-ARA* search algorithm for dynamic graph by copying human discrete decision-making model of reconsidering goals similar to Page-Rank algorithm. All the approaches demonstrate how human behavior can be modeled in applications with significant perception of intellectual agent actions.
This study proposes the global bibliometric overview of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) research in Scopus database in 1985 – 2015. This study detects key countries in this field of research as well as the major centers of excellence (organisations) in UAV research. We analyse publication activity of leading countries and organisations as well as the level of citation of their UAV publications. Special section is devoted to the analysis of cross-country collaboration links. For plotting the map of international collaboration in UAV research, VOSviewer software was used.
Path planning is typically considered in Artificial Intelligence as a graph searching problem and R* is state-of-the-art algorithm tailored to solve it. The algorithm decomposes given path finding task into the series of subtasks each of which can be easily (in computational sense) solved by well-known methods (such as A*). Parameterized random choice is used to perform the decomposition and as a result R* performance largely depends on the choice of its input parameters. In our work we formulate a range of assumptions concerning possible upper and lower bounds of R* parameters, their interdependency and their influence on R* performance. Then we evaluate these assumptions by running a large number of experiments. As a result we formulate a set of heuristic rules which can be used to initialize the values of R* parameters in a way that leads to algorithm’s best performance.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.