Горизонты научного плюрализма
Discussions of pluralism are usually carried out in the context of debates about the unity of science thesis advanced by neopositivists in 1930s and criticized from 1978. In the article this problem is examined by giving an example of pluralistic situation within modern logic and resulting consequences. The problem of logical pluralism became actual in light of the emergence and further development of non-classical logics. As a rule, arguments in favor of the choice of the unique logical system are of extralogical nature, they should be classifi ed as a quest for “paradise lost” from which logic and logicians suddenly were banished. The conception of Universal Logic which is a theory of mutual translatability and combinations of logical systems allows hoping for more constructive approach to a problem of pluralisticity of modern logic. Meantime, logical pluralism as his consequence gives rise not only ontological pluralism but to non-classical mathematics, which is formalized or would be formalized in principle in the framework of certain logic diverse of classical one. An analysis of ontological pluralism results in the concept of global and local universes extended on the variety of non-classical formal mathematics and involving the question: is our mathematic globally classical and locally non-classical (i.e. having non-classical parts) or the other way round, globally non-classical and in the same time locally classical? In conclusion it is indicating that from the point of view of post-non-classical science logical pluralism is apparently a premise of the freedom of choice of logical tools determining a particular line of research in conformity with aims formulated and values and norms accepted.