«Охранная грамота» Б. Пастернака: о возможном смысловом обертоне заглавия
The article is written on the title story of Pasternak's "Safe Conduct"
This article is devoted to the traces left in Pasternak’s works by Olga Freidenberg. As a character or person, she is practically absent from both her brother’s poetry and prose. However in the Safe Conduct (“Okhrannaya gramota”) is she briefly mentioned, without being named. However, his preference for reunion with his unnamed sister over the lunch at Cohen’s constitutes the rejection of a career in philosophy and coincides with Ida Vysotskaya’s rejection of him. Analysis of the correspondence with Olga Freidenberg, which Pasternak kept up for over forty years, allows us to trace in his poetry the set of motifs that indicate her “presence”, when there occur a crossing of a certain border, the “initiation” of the poet as an “absorbent sponge”, the femininity of the poet. The mythology of twins, in the archaic form of brother and sister, presents one of the aspects of Pasternak’s myth of the poet. The rare and full implementation of this myth occurs when the woman and sister is a creatively gifted person. Along with Marina Tsvetayеva and the image of Maria Ilyina, Olga Freidenberg, in images of their common experience of the awakening of a creative soul, appears as an embodiment of the main Pasternak myth.
In the Foreword to the publication of excerpts from the Freienberg's Memoirs on Russian Revolution the author quotes letters written by Olga Freidenberg in 1917-1918. And makes a comparison of the three points on the chronological axis: the letters are from 1917-1918 and memoirs from 1937 and 1947 The comparison provides a picture of rethinking and reviewing of the February and October revolutions implemented by outstanding scholar and B.Pasternak's cousin and correspondent Olga Freidenberg.
The paper is devoted to the principles of quoting in the cycle of Anna Akhmatova's poems " Tajny Remesla"
The novel Doctor Zhivago, first published in 1957, immediately provoked critical debates that continue to this day, and has been the subject of numerous scholarly studies (C. Barnes, B. Gasparov, P. A. Jensen, A. Lavrov. M. Aucouturier, O. Raevsky-Hughes, I. Smirnov, L. Fleishman, Iu. Shcheglov, A. Khan, and many others). On one hand, Boris Pasternak’s positions (founded on his religious historiosophy) with regard to the events, people and situation that he depicts have formed one of the central topics of critical and scholarly contention. On the other hand, it is the specificity of the novel’s poetics and most centrally of its generic identity, the laws of its organization of novelistic time and problems of the prototypes of its central characters, that have served as objects of debate. It is our contention, however, that the choice of genre (that we have defined as being that of “a historical novel of a new type”) was fundamental for Pasternak and determined the entirety of the novel’s poetics. As we will demonstrate, the author was continuing the tradition of Walter Scott, which had been rejected by other contemporary Soviet authors who described the history of the twentieth century. In taking up work on the novel, Pasternak emphasized many times that he desired to present an image of the course of history of the first half of the twentieth century—the “forty- five-year era,” as he named this period several times in his letters. This dissertation describes the author’s search for a means for the artistic embodiment of contemporary events and his final choice of the “Walter Scott tradition” of historical novel for Doctor Zhivago. In this connection the work includes marked reflections of C. Dickens’ Tale of Two Cities, Pushkin’s The Captain’s Daughter and Dubrovsky, and L. Tolstoi’s War and Peace, as well as sharp polemics with historical works of prose fiction by Pasternak’s contemporaries and with the highly ideologically charged Soviet historiography. Separate consideration will be given to the specific events, situations and names that Pasternak considered it necessary to include in his narrative, presenting in this way his own version of a hierarchy of characteristic phenomena of these decades. The dissertation demonstrates that in Doctor Zhivago history is presented simultaneously as a force, organizing the actions of people and forming their characters and world-views, and also as a chain of events to be understood and made meaningful by the protagonists, and finally as an ineluctable law of human existence that has been reestablished by the force of artistic creation—by the poetry of Iurii Zhivago. At the very foundation of the Zhivago’s poetry lay the ideas of his uncle—the philosopher Vedeniapin, who defines history as an element of the Christian comprehension of the world. The central place of these characters in the novel defines the nature of Pasternak’s techniques with prototypes, by which he embeds into his characters the views, characteristics and fates of various of his contemporaries (A. Bely, A. Blok, D. Samarin, the author himself, and others). We also propose explanation of the work’s many anachronisms, which become a means for communication of the laws of the post-revolutionary period (1917-1943)—a period that “fell” out of history. At the same time we will show how historical time is reestablished in the Epilogue that completes the novel and in the “Poems of Doctor Zhivago.” This dissertation may be characterized as interdisciplinary. In it, the methods of literary- historical and intertextual analysis are applied. The text is examined in relation to social, cultural and historical phenomena of Russia during the first half of the twentieth century.
This essay charts the unconventional academic career of Olga Freidenberg (1890–1955), exploring the degree to which she was forced to bend her scholarship to fit an ideological straightjacket and how she escaped the common fate of Soviet scholars who had either to perish or to become subjugated. Two people played serious roles in Freidenberg’s scholarly fate: N.Ia. Marr and Boris Pasternak. The former supported her at the beginning of her career and compromised posthumously with bruit on her reputation as his admirer. The latter could not help his cousin during her lifetime but in 1970s sparked an interest in her works among Russian humanitarians, especially after publication of their correspondence. Decades after her death the publications and translations of hundreds of Freidenberg works into foreign languages as well as research and thesis about her works show that in Russian scholarship Freidenberg plays the same role as Russian scholarship played in the world one: the back wardness and marginality can paradoxically carry a potential of innovativeness and originality.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.