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## Polynomiality of orbifold Hurwitz numbers, spectral curve, and a new proof of the Johnson–Pandharipande–Tseng formula

Journal of London Mathematical Society. 2015. Vol. 92. No. 3. P. 547-565.

In this paper, we present an example of a derivation of an ELSV-type formula using the methods of topological recursion. Namely, for orbifold Hurwitz numbers we give a new proof of the spectral curve topological recursion, in the sense of Chekhov, Eynard and Orantin, where the main new step compared to the existing proofs is a direct combinatorial proof of their quasi-polynomiality. Spectral curve topological recursion leads to a formula for the orbifold Hurwitz numbers in terms of the intersection theory of the moduli space of curves, which, in this case, appears to coincide with a special case of the Johnson–Pandharipande–Tseng formula.

Publication based on the results of:

Bychkov B., Dunin-Barkowski P., Kazaryan M. et al., / Cornell University. Series math "arxiv.org". 2020. No. 2012.14723.

We study the n-point differentials corresponding to Kadomtsev-Petviashvili tau functions of hypergeometric type (also known as Orlov-Scherbin partition functions), with an emphasis on their ℏ2-deformations and expansions.
Under the naturally required analytic assumptions, we prove certain higher loop equations that, in particular, contain the standard linear and quadratic loop equations, and thus imply the blobbed topological recursion. We ...

Added: April 20, 2022

Dunin-Barkowski P., Kramer R., Popolitov A. et al., Journal of Geometry and Physics 2019 Vol. 137 P. 1-6

We give a new proof of the cut-and-join equation for the monotone Hurwitz numbers, derived first by Goulden, Guay-Paquet, and Novak. The main interest in this particular equation is its close relation to the quadratic loop equation in the theory of spectral curve topological recursion, and we recall this motivation giving a new proof of ...

Added: February 20, 2019

Dunin-Barkowski Petr, Kazarian Maxim, Orantin N. et al., Advances in Mathematics 2015 Vol. 279 P. 67-103

In this paper we give a new proof of the ELSV formula. First, we refine an argument of Okounkov and Pandharipande in order to prove (quasi-)polynomiality of Hurwitz numbers without using the ELSV formula (the only way to do that before used the ELSV formula). Then, using this polynomiality we give a new proof of ...

Added: September 24, 2015

Bychkov B., Dunin-Barkowski P., Shadrin S., European Journal of Combinatorics 2020 Vol. 90 P. 103184

In this paper we prove, in a purely combinatorial-algebraic way, a structural quasi-polynomiality property for the Bousquet-Mélou–Schaeffer numbers. Conjecturally, this property should follow from the Chekhov–Eynard–Orantin topological recursion for these numbers (or, to be more precise, the Bouchard–Eynard version of the topological recursion for higher order critical points), which we derive in this paper from ...

Added: September 22, 2020

Dunin-Barkowski P., Kramer R., Popolitov A. et al., Annales Scientifiques de l'Ecole Normale Superieure 2023 Vol. 56 No. 4 P. 1199-1229

We prove the 2006 Zvonkine conjecture that expresses Hurwitz numbers with completed cycles in terms of intersection numbers with the Chiodo classes via the so-called r-ELSV formula, as well as its orbifold generalization, the so-called qr-ELSV formula. ...

Added: October 5, 2023

Kazaryan M., Lando S., Успехи математических наук 2015 Т. 70 № 3 С. 70-106

This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to ...

Added: September 21, 2015

Bychkov B., Функциональный анализ и его приложения 2015 Т. 49 № 2 С. 1-6

The investigation of decompositions of a permutation into a product of permutations
satisfying certain conditions plays a key role in the study of meromorphic functions or, equivalently,
branched coverings of the 2-sphere; it goes back to A. Hurwitz' work in the late nineteenth century.
In 2000 M. Bousquet-Melou and G. Schaeffer obtained an elegant formula for the number ...

Added: July 18, 2015

Mironov A., Morozov A., Natanzon S. M., Journal of Geometry and Physics 2012 Vol. 62 P. 148-155

We establish a correspondence between Young diagrams and differential operators of infinitely many variables. These operators form a commutative associative algebra isomorphic to the algebra of the conjugated classes of finite permutations of the set of natural numbers. The Schur functions form a complete system of common eigenfunctions of these differential operators, and their eigenvalues ...

Added: September 19, 2012

Dunin-Barkowski P., Orantin N., Popolitov A. et al., International Mathematics Research Notices 2018 Vol. 2018 No. 18 P. 5638-5662

We prove, in a purely combinatorial way, the spectral curve topological recursion for the problem of enumeration of bi-colored maps, which are dual objects to dessins d'enfant. Furthermore, we give a proof of the quantum spectral curve equation for this problem. Then we consider the generalized case of 4-colored maps and outline the idea of ...

Added: December 22, 2016

Zabrodin A., Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 2013 Vol. 46 No. 18 P. 185203

We study the integrable structure of the 2D Laplacian growth problem with zero surface tension in an infinite channel with periodic boundary conditions in a transverse direction. Similarly to the Laplacian growth in radial geometry, this problem can be embedded into the 2D Toda lattice hierarchy in the zero dispersion limit. However, the relevant solution ...

Added: April 29, 2013

Natanzon S. M., Orlov A. Y., Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 2020 Vol. 204 No. 3 P. 1166-1194

To obtain a generating function of the most general form for Hurwitz numbers with arbitrary base surfaceand arbitrary ramification profiles, we consider a matrix model constructed according to a graph on anoriented connected surfaceΣwith no boundary. The vertices of this graph, called stars, are small discs,and the graph itself is a clean dessin d’enfants. We ...

Added: September 27, 2020

Alexandrov A., Mironov A., Morozov A. et al., Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 2012 No. 45 P. 1-10

We construct partition functions that are tau-functions of integrable hierarchies. ...

Added: September 19, 2012

Burman Y. M., Zvonkine D., European Journal of Combinatorics 2010 Vol. 31 No. 1 P. 129-144

Consider factorizations into transpositions of an n-cycle in the symmetric group Sn. To every such factorization we assign a monomial in variables wij that retains the transpositions used, but forgets their order. Summing over all possible factorizations of n-cycles we obtain a polynomial that happens to admit a closed expression. From this expression we deduce ...

Added: November 7, 2012

Mironov A., Morozov A., Natanzon S. M., Journal of Knot Theory and Its Ramifications 2014 Vol. 23 No. 6 P. 1-16

The classical Hurwitz numbers of degree n together with the Hurwitz numbers of the seamed surfaces of degree n give rise to the Klein topological field theory. We extend this construction to the Hurwitz numbers of all degrees at once. The corresponding Cardy-Frobenius algebra is induced by arbitrary Young diagrams and arbitrary bipartite graphs. It ...

Added: April 2, 2014

Kazaryan M., Zograf P., Letters in Mathematical Physics 2015 Vol. 105 No. 8 P. 1057-1084

We compute the number of coverings of CP1∖{0,1,∞} with a given monodromy type over ∞ and given numbers of preimages of 0 and 1. We show that the generating function for these numbers enjoys several remarkable integrability properties: it obeys the Virasoro constraints, an evolution equation, the KP (Kadomtsev–Petviashvili) hierarchy and satisfies a topological recursion ...

Added: January 19, 2016

Shapiro B., Yurii Burman, Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Classe di Scienze 2019 Vol. XIX No. 1 P. 155-167

For a point p of the complex projective plane and a triple (g,d,l) of non-negative integers we define a Hurwitz--Severi number H(g,d,l) as the number of generic irreducible plane curves of genus g and degree d+l having an l-fold node at p and at most ordinary nodes as singularities at the other points, such that the ...

Added: April 14, 2017

Dunin-Barkowski P., Norbury P., Orantin N. et al., Journal of the Institute of Mathematics of Jussieu 2019 Vol. 18 No. 3 P. 449-497

We apply the spectral curve topological recursion to Dubrovin's universal Landau-Ginzburg superpotential associated to a semi-simple point of any conformal Frobenius manifold. We show that under some conditions the expansion of the correlation differentials reproduces the cohomological field theory associated with the same point of the initial Frobenius manifold. ...

Added: December 22, 2016

Providence : American Mathematical Society, 2018

This volume contains the proceedings of the 2016 AMS von Neumann Symposium on Topological Recursion and its Influence in Analysis, Geometry, and Topology, which was held from July 4–8, 2016, at the Hilton Charlotte University Place, Charlotte, North Carolina.
The papers contained in the volume present a snapshot of rapid and rich developments in the emerging ...

Added: February 20, 2019

Natanzon S. M., Zabrodin A., International Mathematics Research Notices 2015 Vol. 2015 No. 8 P. 2082-2110

We explicitly construct the series expansion for a certain class of solutions to the 2D Toda hierarchy in the zero dispersion limit, which we call symmetric solutions. We express the Taylor coefficients through some universal combinatorial constants and find recurrence relations for them. These results are used to obtain new formulas for the genus 0 ...

Added: April 2, 2014

Alexeevski A., Natanzon S. M., American Mathematical Society Translations 2014 Vol. 234 P. 1-12

In 2001 Ivanov and Kerov associated with the infinite permutation group S∞ certain commutative associative algebra A∞ called the algebra of conjugacy classes of partial elements. A standard basis of A∞ islabeled by Yang diagrams of all orders. Mironov, Morozov, Natanzon, 2012, have proved that the completion of A∞ is isomorphic to the direct product ...

Added: April 2, 2014

Costa A., Sergey Natanzon, Shapiro B., Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae Mathematica 2018 Vol. 43 P. 349-363

In this article, to each generic real meromorphic function (i.e., having only simple branch points in the appropriate sense) we associate a certain combinatorial gadget which we call the park of a function. We show that the park determines the topological type of the generic real meromorphic function and the set of parks produce an stratification ...

Added: March 4, 2018

Yurii Burman, Shapiro B., / Cornell University. Series math "arxiv.org". 2016. No. 06935.

For a point p in a complex projective plane and a triple (g,d,l) of non-negative
integers we define a plane Hurwitz number of the Severi variety
W_{g,d,l} consisting of all reduced irreducible plane curves of
genus g and degree d+l having an l-fold node at p and at
most ordinary nodes as singularities at the other points. In the ...

Added: July 5, 2016

А.Д. Миронов, А.Ю. Морозов, С.М. Натанзон, Теоретическая и математическая физика 2011 Т. 166 № 1 С. 3-27

We define cut-and-join operators in Hurwitz theory for merging two branch points of an arbitrary type. These operators have two alternative descriptions: (1) the GL characters are their eigenfunctions and the symmetric group characters are their eigenvalues; (2) they can be represented as W-type differential operators (in particular, acting on the time variables in the ...

Added: November 24, 2012

Bychkov B., Dunin-Barkowski P., Kazaryan M. et al., / Cornell University. Series math "arxiv.org". 2021. No. 2106.08368.

We study a duality for the n-point functions in VEV formalism that we call the ordinary vs fully simple duality. It provides an ultimate generalisation and a proper context for the duality between maps and fully simple maps observed by Borot and Garcia-Failde. Our approach allows to transfer the algebraicity properties between the systems of n-point functions ...

Added: April 20, 2022