The analytical review of development of approaches to the structure of writing and the nature of agraphia in foreign neuropsychology is presented. In the first part of the paper the early theories (Wernicke-Lichtheim’s, Leischner’s, Pitres’, Chedru-Geschwind’s, Laine and Martilla’s, Barrière and Lorch’s theories) are discussed. The analysis is performed based on Russian neuropsychology statements where a set of two parameters characterizing the system structure of the psychic function is used. The first parameter corresponds to the internal structure of writing (the function of writing is treated as an undivided whole or a whole consisting of several components). The second parameter corresponds to the interfunctional relations between writing and other functions (describes if writing is a separate independent function or consists of components common to other psychic functions). In Russian neuropsychology foreign theories are traditionally considered as theories of narrow localizationalism. It is established however that in most reviewed theories writing is considered as a function with complex multicomponent structure containing components common to other psychic functions that provide the interaction between different functions.
Experimental data on differences in visual perception speed of a human and some animals are presented. Examples of alternation of subjective time under drugs, stress, and intended training are considered. Explanation of such alternation is given on the basis of F. Varela's conception of perceptive fram.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.