The Cybernetic Revolution and Historical Process
The article analyzes the technological shifts which took place in the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries and predict the main shifts in the next half a century. On the basis of the analysis of the latest achievements in medicine, bio- and nanotechnologies, robotics, ICT and other technological directions and also on the basis of the opportunities provided by the theory of production revolutions the authors present a detailed analysis of the latest production revolution which is denoted as ‘Cybernetic’. There are given some forecasts about its development in the nearest five decades and up to the end of twenty-first century. It is shown that the development of various self-regulating systems will be the main trend of this revolution. The article gives a detailed analysis of the future breakthroughs in medicine, and also in bio- and nanotechnologies in terms of the development of self-regulating systems with their growing ability to select optimal modes of functioning as well as of other characteristics of the Cybernetic Revolution (resources and energy saving, miniaturization, and individualization).
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T and innovation potential of the Russian Federation, R&D output, main Information Society indices. The data book includes information of the Federal Service for State Statistics, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Euro¬stat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge. In some cases, the presented data specify those published earlier.
We are witnessing now a coming closer together of two pedagogical movements – that of media education (media literacy) and that of information literacy, both of them having previously existed parallel to each other, and without actually crossing each other’s path.
1. Description of the problem. Instrumental analysis makes it possible to find the arguments of adjudication on the bounders and structure of corpus delicti, its correlation to criminal and filling-up legislation. 2. Initial theses. Corpus delicti is regarded as that expressed in criminal law doctrine result of reorganization of orders of criminal law into other practically necessary form. That happens in the process of theory and practical experience accumulation. The construction of corpus delicti is transformed for practical needs, textually expressed system of features, regulated by criminal law and characterizing deeds as a crime of a definite type. Correlation of construction of corpus delicti with law and doctrine. Corpus delicti, its algorithm. Transition from law regulations to corpus delicti can be done: 1) prog-nostically; 2) within constant analysis of law; 3) in the process of law application. 3. Stages of instrumental building of corpus delicti: prognostic, doctrinal, law applicatory. Instrumental approach to corpus delicti includes within each stage: 1) based on criminal law decision of classification of corpus delicti and its borders; 2) objective description of a factual model; 3) acception of meaning correlated with legal notions and constructions; 4) choice of the construction of the corpus delicti and disposal of characteristics; 5) verification of legitimacy, necessity and adequacy of foundation. 4. Instrumental analysis of disputable questions of understanding and application of constructions of corpus delicti. A. Functions and purposes of application of construction of corpus delicti. Functions of corpus delicti: a) modeling; b) communicative; c) identificatory; d) technological. B. Contents of corpus delicti. Contents of corpus delicti as it is traditionally regarded does not correspond to indications of crime, does not characterize features of social danger; sign of danger of penalty also does go into corpus delicti. Two variants are proposed for the discussion: widening of the borders of corpus delicti by means of introduction of signs of social danger and signs, defining individualization of penalty and to limitate corpus delicti by characteristic of criminally punished act, separating it from contents of guilt and contents of social danger. C. Structure of corpus delicti. There are two problems: division of elements of crime seems to be extremely harsh and inadequate - it is expedient to include signs of special and time limits of act, causal links, crossing signs of objective and subjective sides, first of all consequences and an object of crime, into the structure of corpus delicti. Forms of committing a criminally punished act is a crime commitment in complicity, ideal system, not finished crime.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
In the present paper, on the basis of the theory of production principles and production revolutions, we reveal the interrelation between K-waves and major technological breakthroughs in history and make forecasts about features of the sixth Kondratieff wave in the light of the Cybernetic Revolution that, from our point of view, started in the 1950s. We assume that the sixth K-wave in the 2030s and 2040s will merge with the final phase of the Cybernetic Revolution (which we call a phase of self-regulating systems). This period will be characterized by the breakthrough in medical technologies which will be capable to combine many other technologies into a single complex of MBNRIC-technologies (med-bio-nano-robo-info-cognitive technologies). The article offers some forecasts concerning the development of these technologies.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.