Berlin, the City of Saturated Walls
“Saturation” is the term suggested by the authors to describe the present state of the visual environment of Berlin, the city that acquired a reputation as the European capital of street art. Saturation is a consequence of the gradual infiltration of graffiti and street art into everyday life and the visual environment of Berlin, and their acceptance by city residents. Berliners’ fondness for street imagery is enhanced by the experience and memory of the independent reappropriation and rearrangement of urban space the city underwent after unification. The memory of the Berlin Wall plays a significant role in sustaining Berlin graffiti and street art cultures. It makes evident the history of the images and their creators and their role in urban communication. Simultaneously it normalizes the ephemerality of street imagery. Visual saturation in Berlin is complemented by the activities of “mediators,” who draw various audiences’ attention to graffiti and street art and encourage the interaction of all interested parties. In English, extended summary in Russian.
Seit Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts, vor allem aber seit Anfang der 1920er Jahre war Berlin für Juden aus Osteuropa Zuflucht und Zwischenstation. Die deutsche Metropole wurde eines der größten Migrationszentren in Europa. Die jüdischen Einwanderer aus Osteuropa waren zumeist Kriegs-, Pogrom- und Revolutionsflüchtlinge. Sie unterschieden sich nach Sozialstatus ebenso wie nach kulturellen und politischen Optionen. Verbunden waren sie jedoch durch Erinnerungen an das, was sie erlebt und zurückgelassen hatten. Viele der Migranten lebten im Scheunenviertel, andere im bürgerlichen Charlottenburg, das aufgrund des hohen russischen Anteils der Bevölkerung auch Charlottengrad genannt wurde. Das erlebte Leid und die Erfahrungen in der Fremde trennten die Flüchtlinge von der deutschen Gesellschaft. Gleichzeitig kam es aber - vor allem in Kreisen der Arbeiterbewegung und der Literaturavantgarde - zu Verflechtungen und Wechselwirkungen west- und osteuropäischer Einflüsse. Die Einwanderer machten Berlin zu einem Zentrum jüdischer Kultur und waren zugleich Teil der multikulturellen Stadtlandschaft. Ihre Erfahrungen, Weltwahrnehmungen und Überlebensstrategien in der Großstadt stehen im Mittelpunkt des Bandes. Etwa die Hälfte der Beiträge ist in englischer Sprache verfasst.
Anna Waclawek's book is an example of the new perspective on graffiti and street art. It focuses on the role or the graffiti and street art in urban visual environment and the role of urban space and urban visuality in production and perseption of these phenomena. The book introduces the system of codes and convention attached to street art and graffiti to the wide audience.
This paper discusses the legacy of Nikolai Antsiferov (1889–1958), a Russian historian who suggested a unique approach to urban studies in which literature played the key role. In the first section of this paper, the genesis of Antsiferov‘s conceptions of the study of urban history and the image of the city are outlined. The second section provides an analysis of his ideas on the literary image of St. Petersburg and the theory of literary-themed guided tours, which were articulated in his works of the 1920s. The finalsection of the article sheds light on the reception and legacy of Antsiferov‘s intellectual ideas in the modern humanities and assesses its significance in the modern context of interdisciplinarity.
This chapter analyzes the inflamed political debates that took place among prominent Jewish publicists in Weimar Berlin. The "Berlin debates" articulated the tragic dilemma of the Jews as being simultaneously the subjects and the victims of the Russian Revolution.
The publication is devoted to various aspects of the history of Paris XVI-XVIII centuries. Particular attention is paid to the functioning of the municipal administration, the forms of social control, reconstruction projects and decorating the city in accordance with the requirements of the era.
The article discusses the features of "transport association" of Berlin and the transformation of the urban public transport network.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.