Имущество и доходы религиозных организаций – публичные или частные?
The article considers the sources of income of religious institutes, origin and destination of Church property and the withdrawal of state ownership of church property (secularization) as a special form of nationalization. The analysis is performed on the example of the Orthodox Church, for this the sources of Canon law and the historical aspects. The author analyses the sources of acquisition of church property, makes the conclusion about the public mission of the church property. That means the seizure of church property generates budget expenditure commitments.
The boor develops a new approach to the study of social reality in its denamics based on the revealing of connections between social and anthropological phenomena. The fundament of the approach is synergic anthropology, in the frame work of which the apparatus for the description and analysis or the "colonization" of the interface of the Social and the Anthropological is constructed. A new class of concepts is introduced, the categories of the interface, the examples of which are anthropological situation, anthropological trend, spiritual tradition etc. Anthropological trends serve as the main tool are developed, the diagnostics (the identification of anthropological formation(s), which generate trend in question) and the control (the stimulation of a trend, the blocking of it etc.). The framework is then applied to analysis of the most topical modern problems such as global risks, ecological crisis, the grwth of the virtualization of reality, the problem of the Post-human etc. Special attention is paid to the "Exit trend", which is how we call the overall anthropological trend collecting all manifestations and tendencies of the specific tiredness of the Human and his/her drive to a self-withdrawal. Using our methods of the control of trends, it is possible to formulate strategies for changing and correcting anthroposocial situation. We find that two phenomena play important role in these strategies, the transition of modernity into the postsecular paradigm, and the return of the Onthological Human, the fnthropological formation constituted in religious expirience and forced out by the po\rocesses of secularization. In the conceptual context of modern social philosophy the approach uniting social and anthropological reality in a new light, and provides new principles for determining our attitudes and strategies towards leading trends of modernity.
Isidore of Seville (560-636) was not a lawer in a strict sense, but it was he, who has given a definition of the terms like "justice", "law" and "equity" in his encyclopaedia "Etymologies". Although in his work he has used the works of Gaius, Paulus and Ulpianus, his approach to a problem of law differs from that of Roman lawers. The Isidore's object is a making of system of strict definitions, found on the etymology. Among his sources we can find not only juridical works, but also Roman literature, biblical texts and patristics studies. Isidore took the Roman law as a part of rhetorical culture. In his works juridical terms have been becoming a language of theology. At last, the bishop of Seville has contributed to the development of the canon law.
The article concerns the problem of the Russian absolutist monarchy of the XVIII - the beginning of XX-th centuries in a comparative perspective. The social function of absolutism consisted in national integration, cultural unification and social transformation of traditional society by using of legal and coercive measures. The crucial problem is the changing role of the bureaucracy which could be the main protagonist of reforms or, just the opposite – its main opponent. From this point of view the author summarizes positive and negative aspects of absolutist reforms making outlook on the comparative experience of other absolutist empires of Europe and Asia.
The paper contains an academic program of discipline «Sociology of Religion and Secularization». The discipline can be included in different humanities academic programs.
The introductory chapter to the volume devoted to diversity of the forms and practices of religious life in the post-Soviet space, aims to explain the success and rapidity of the process of religious revival in the former Soviet Union. It argues that religious revival of the 1990s was geared-up by return of material representations of religion, in the form of cultural heritage, into the Soviet public sphere. This new turn, "retrospective turn", started after the WWII with efforts of Soviet intellectuals, artists and writers who were critical about results of Soviet modernization.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.