The Evolution of Conflict Regulation in Private International Law of Russia and Poland
The present article examines the evolution of conflict regulation in the private international law of Russia and Poland. The author identifies the concept, structure and types of conflict rules, stressing that the conflict of laws is the most important category of private international law. A detailed classification of the types of connecting factor formulas under which connecting factors of bilateral conflict rules are formed is undertaken. The detailed analysis of conflict rules contained in Russian and Polish legislation set forth mainly in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and the Law of Poland “On Private International Law” is conducted with the help of the comparative and formal-logical methods of research. The author also scrutinizes different conflict rules contained in the Treaty between Russia and Poland on legal assistance and legal relations in civil and criminal matters. The author concludes that modern conflict regulation in Russia and Poland is in accordance with those trends in private international law, which can be seen through the prism of the international dimension.
The present article examines the main peculiarities of modern development of the sources of Private International Law, including domestic legislation, international treaties, international customs, case law, legal acts of international organizations and lex mercatoria. The author proved that at present the main trend of the development of domestic legislation as a source of PIL consists of its intensive and extensive codification. Another trend of the development of PIL sources undermines the enlargement of instruments of non-state regulation of private international relations, namely, lex mercatoria as an example of soft law. As far as the development of PIL sources in the European Union is concerned, two trends may be observed simultaneously: firstly, formation of European conflict law and European Civil Procedure by instruments not only having legal force but also having direct application on the territory of the EU Member States (regulations); secondly, formation of the unified material rules regulating private relations amongst different subjects on the territory of the EU, which are contained either in regulations, or in non-binding documents.
The article considers the issues of creation and historical development of conflict-law method as applied to regulation of contractual obligations. The author’s attention is concentrated on delimitation of two systems of determination of applicable law — unilateral or bilateral. At that the author makes analysis of the viewpoints of Russian and foreign scientists with regard to this question and concludes on unconditional recognition of the fact that both unilateral and bilateral conflict norms have regulative function.
The application of «protective reservations» is a fundamental principle of modern codifications of the private international law. The post-graduate student of the Private International Law Department, Faculty of Laws, National Research University «The Higher School of Economics», the advocate E.A. Kruty (e-mail: email@example.com) minutely analyses provisions about the reservation about the public policy and mandatory rules which are included in the international acts and ten national codifications of XXI centuries (Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Estonia, Mongolia, Russia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Macedonia, Turkey). Despite the apparent prevalence of the negative construction of the reservation about the public policy the lawmaker prefers in some situations its positive variant. An appeal to codifications allows to identify the certain conditions on which protective reservations take effect. Their most detailed description is contained in the Belgian and Bulgarian codes. Not less interesting is a regulation of the legal consequences coming as a result of application of these legal institutions for private legal relations with a foreign element including in the international civil procedure.
This book is a collection of articles written on the results of the international scientific seminar "Legal aspects of the BRICS", organized by the University of Rome "Tor Vergata" in May 2013. Lawyers - researchers from Italy, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa Republic took part in the discussion on the harmonization of the legal systems of the BRICS and prepared their works, which have been published in 2015.
This information-analytical publication highlights the PRC current development - the changes in its domestic and foreign policy and in socio-economic development, including legislation, party building, demographic policy as well as the economic achievements, pressing problems and challenges facing the PRC today. The articles of the collective monograph, reflecting the materials of the CCP 19th Congress (October 2017) and the sessions of the National People's Congress, including the most recent one (March 2018), discover the content of the new ideas, which will guide China in its further development, such as “The Great Revival of the Chinese Nation” and “The Community of the Shared Destiny of Mankind”, and specify the provisions of the “One Belt, One Road” initiative.
The study dwells on the problem of interaction between North American legal doctrine and codifications of private international law in the state of Louisiana and the Province of Quebec. Covering both classical and modern USA schools of thought in the area of conflict of laws, the article also includes a comparative analysis of Book IV (Conflict of Laws) of Louisiana Civil Code and Book X (On private international law) of Quebec Civil Code respectfully. On comparing these acts, the authors dwell on a thesis that, in spite of the obvious similarities between respectful legal systems, one cannot state undoubtedly that American doctrine of private international law has been recepted by abovementioned codifications in equal measure. Therefore, despite all the similarities, the doctrinal traditions on which they are respectfully based are actually different.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/