Некоторые общие элементы идеалов куртуазной и платонической любви
In this article Karpenko proposes the hypothesis on possible (indirect) influence of the ideal of ancient Platonic love on the development of courtly relations in the Middle Ages. Taking into account the fact that direct influence is impossible, the author makes an attempt to define their common features. Such elements become evident in the process of comparing Plato's texts (Symposium and Phaedrus) and a number of medieval sources. Karpenko concludes that there is a certain similarity (perhaps even identity) between some key features of Platonic love and courtly love (in the part when the influence of the Roman de la Rose is less). The author has also appealed to related resources of such experts as Vladimir Shishmarev, Johan Huizinga, Jacques Le Goff, Georges Duby, an dothers. The research is based on the method of the comparative analysis of texts, the method of the historical analysis and hermeneutical method (i.e. description of cultural practices of particular epochs through interpreting literary sources). The novelty of the article is caused by the fact that the author makes an atempt to discover cultural relations and continuity in the spheres where these relations and continuity are not evident but nevertheless can be recorded based on the example of definite proofs found in original sources. This practice may be applied to other spheres of sciences to demonstrate either a fact of cultural heritage or a fact of accidental creation of similar values in different cultural environments. Keywords: troubadours and trouveres, Roman de la Rose (Romance of the Rose), fine amour, amour courtois, Middle Ages, ancientry, ancient world, Platonic love, courtesy , Provencal poetry, knighthood.
The article is centered on the custom of using of such a specific insignia as parasol in processions of western princes during the Middle Ages.
Der Begriff "Meistererzählung" ist in den letzten Jahren in der öffentlichen Debatte häufig als Kampfbegriff gebraucht worden, wenn es darum ging, gegnerische Positionen als ideologisch zu brandmarken. Weniger bekannt ist dagegen der Versuch innerhalb der historischen Wissenschaften, diejenigen Meister- oder Metaerzählungen zu identifizieren, die der Praxis des Forschens in spezifischen Disziplinen unausgesprochen zugrundelagen. In diesem Band erörtern sieben Fachleute, an welchen Erzählmustern sich die Historiographie, die Literatur- und Musikgeschichtsschreibung seit dem 19. Jahrhundert orientiert haben, wenn es darum ging, dem Mittelalter einen Platz in einem allgemeineren Geschichtsbild zuzuweisen.
This article analyzes various information about the personality and the reign of Alfonso X the Wise, contained in the historical writing heritage of Castilian tradition from the late 13th to early 14th c. As exemplified in a number of the annals and brief chronicles, including unpublished ones, the article demonstrates the process of forming the main features of the image of Alfonso X, reflected later in the «Chronicle of Alfonso X» and subsequent historical work. The King is portrayed as an educated, knowledgeable and experienced ruler and warrior. However, it also emphasizes his generosity, which sometimes came to wastefulness. The study focuses on his problems in relations with the Church and with the traditions going back to the «First General Chronicle». The article refers to his disrespect for the customs and legal practices of the Castilian nobility, as well as his authoritarian and brutal nature.
The author discusses the meaning of zhe term "the Middle Ages".
The article analizes the ritual of setting of ecclesiastical and secular princes upon altar'a mensa during inauguration rituals, practicised in the Middle Ages.
The subject of the article is custom of plundering of ecclestiacal but also secular princes after their death, intensively praticised in Europe during the Middle Ages and Early Modern Time.
This book brings together a group of leading experts on the political history of Germany and the medieval Empire from the Carolingian period to the end of the Middle Ages. Its purpose is to introduce and analyze key concepts in the study of medieval political culture. The representation of power by means of texts, buildings and images is a theme which has long interested historians. However, recent debates and methodological insights have fundamentally altered the way this subject is perceived, opening it up to perspectives unnoticed by its pioneers in the middle of the twentieth century. By taking account of these debates and insights, this volume explores a series of fundamental questions. How was power defined in a medieval context? How was it claimed, legitimized and disputed? What were the moral parameters against which its exercise was judged? How did different spheres of political power interact? What roles were played by texts, images and rituals in the maintenance of, and challenges to, the political order? The contributors bring varied and original approaches to these and other questions, illuminating the complex power relationships which determined the changing political history of medieval Germany.
The article deals with the history of the origins and development of Zemsky Sobors — Russian representative institutions, their main features and differences from corresponding bodies in Western Europe. It marks out those traits of Russian history that determined the character and development dynamics of Zemsky Sobors, shows a connection between their heyday and specific condition of Russian society and state during the Time of Troubles, and describes some sources for this subject. The focus of the article is on Russian research of the history of representative institutions in Russia and Western Europe. It also investigates a close attention to European historical experience, inherent in the Russian social thought. In this context reasons for the origin and existence of the term of «estate representative monarchy», characteristic for the Russian historiography, are analysed. And the main periods of the study of representative institutions from the mid-19th century to the present day are determined and characterised. The article considers the outcome of a Moscow conference of 2013 devoted to the representative Institutions of Russia in the European context and outlines perspectives of further research.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.