### Article

## Painleve functions and conformal blocks

We outline recent developments relating Painlev ́e equations and 2D conformal field theory. Generic tau functions of Painlev ́e VI and Painlev ́e III_3 are written as linear combinations of c= 1 conformal blocks and their irregular limits. This provides explicit combinatorial series representations of the tau functions, and helps to establish connection formula for the tau function in the Painlev ́e VI case.

The recently proposed relation between conformal field theories in two dimensions and supersymmetric gauge theories in four dimensions predicts the existence of the distinguished basis in the space of local fields in CFT. This basis has a number of remarkable properties: one of them is the complete factorization of the coefficients of the operator product expansion. We consider a particular case of the U(r) gauge theory on {Mathematical expression} which corresponds to a certain coset conformal field theory and describe the properties of this basis. We argue that in the case p = 2, r = 2 there exist different bases. We give an explicit construction of one of them. For another basis we propose the formula for matrix elements.

We examine asymptotic expansions of the third Painlevé transcendents for *αδ ≠* 0 and *γ* = 0 in the neighborhood of infinity in a sector of aperture *<*2*π* by the method of dominant balance). We compare intermediate results with results obtained by methods of three-dimensional power geometry. We find possible asymptotics in terms of elliptic functions, construct a power series, which represents an asymptotic expansion of the solution to the third Painlevé equation in a certain sector, estimate the aperture of this sector, and obtain a recurrent relation for the coefficients of the series.

The sheaves of conformal blocks and conformal coinvariants of the twisted WZW model have a factorisation property and are locally free even at the boundary of the moduli space, where the elliptic KZ equations and the Baxter-Belavin elliptic r matrix degenerate to the trigonometric KZ equations and the trigonometric r matrix,o respectively. Etingof's construction of the elliptic KZ equations is geometrically interpreted.

Geometry of second adjointness for p-adic groups.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.