The Evolution of the Models of Knowledge Management in the Dynamic Business Environment (Cases of the Industrial and Construction Networks in St Petersburg)
The paper investigates the process of evolutionary transformation of cooperation and integration modes of industrial and construction enterprises in St.-Petersburg. The period of research (1995-2015) covered three crises in the Russian economy: the crisis after the default of 1998-1999, the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, and the current crisis of 2014-2015. The results obtained enable us to analyze the evolution of the intellectual capital management system in networks, as well as the evolution of networks themselves during changes in the business environment. The network form of integration was chosen as the main objet of this research. The paper is aimed at identifying the path of knowledge management development in different types of networks. One of the peculiarities of the network form of integration is the high level of independence of the network participants that interact with each other. Key issues in this cooperation would be the following: How to organize an effective transfer of knowledge and technologies within a network? How to find a balance between open systems of innovation and the protection of the intellectual property of network participants? How to evaluate the intellectual capital of a network? Is it necessary to make an assessment for each participant separately? Should one take into account synergies that increase the value of the intellectual capital because of the network participants’ interaction and knowledge sharing? How to increase competitiveness of each company and of the whole network by the effective use of the intellectual capital? How to measure the impact of open innovations on the intellectual capital of the companies interacting within a network? Thus, it is important to reveal how knowledge management system is developing within a network of inter-related enterprises. On the base of interviews of top-managers of companies in industrial and construction companies there were identified five different types of networks and knowledge management systems within these types. It is demonstrated how the knowledge management model is growing and becoming mature from the amorphous type of network cooperation to the integrated type.