Мотивационные модели поведения, связанного со здоровьем: проблема "разрыва" между намерением и действием
The paper analyzes continuum motivational models of health behavior (health belief model, moti- vation protection theory, theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, subjective expected util- ity theory, information-motivation-behavioral skills model). The general principles of these models are revealed, including the focus on the behavior prediction; consideration of the intention as the key mediator of the relationships between other psychological factors and behavior; emphasis on the readiness for action rather than on the actual behavior . Theoretical limitations of this approach are the underestimation of the irrationality and dynamism of human behavior, the complexity of the moti- vational sphere (competing intentions and behaviors), the interactions between the constructs as well as possible substitution of explanation by prediction and so-called “bottleneck” problem. Among the empirical limitations we highlighted the most important are the problem of intention-behavior “gap” and the empirical support for the actualization of associations between motivational factors and behavior without change in conscious intentions. Attempts to overcome these limitations were focused on the improvement of the behavior prediction (development of priming models, identifying moderators affecting the transition from intention to action) or changed the focus from behavior pre- diction to the description of behavior dynamics (stage models) and/or behavior explanation (self-reg- ulation models). Further research could concentrate on the differentiation between motivational fac- tors explaining behavior and motivational factors serving as indicators of behavioral change as well as on the identification of complex interactions between motivational factors in the process of behavior.